Evaluation of β Amyloids and Tau Protein Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease in Serum of Alzheimer PatientsAuthor(s): Mennatallah O. Zaki*, Saad Shawki El-Sherifi, Ali Ahmed Abou Elmaaty, Amr Y. Zakaria, Abdelrheem M. Zidan, Abdullrahman M. Mahmoud, Omar Sh. Ali, Hosam A. Ashour, Hazem M. Abo-ghotma, Maryam M. Abdelhakim, Nada F. Ahmed, Hussieny E. Abdelazim, Khaled Ashraf, Ahmed R. Atya, Ranya A. Elsady, Galal S. Mehrez and Marwa A. Abdel-Dayem
Background: β Amyloids and tau proteins are well-known markers of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The goal of this study was to investigate the difference in the amounts of β amyloids [Aβ(1-42) and Aβ(1-40)] and tau protein in the blood serum of AD patients and controls participants in order to find more usable non-invasive AD biomarkers.
Materials and methods: Following medical assessments, physical examinations, and regular blood tests to rule out other known causes to memory impairment, a total of 25 AD participants, aged 50–84 years, and 25 healthy age-matched controls, were initially chosen. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to assess cognitive impairment in all subjects, as well as standard magnetic resonance imaging. We used the ELISA technique to evaluate the blood serum levels of beta amyloid [Aβ(1-42) and Aβ(1-40)], tau protein and the ratio of Aβ(1-42)/Aβ(1-40) in AD patients and control participants.
Main findings: This study showed that tau protein, Aβ(1-42) and ratio of Aβ(1-42)/Aβ(1-40) were significantly elevated in AD patients when compared to control participants. However, Aβ(1-40) were significantly decreased in AD patients when compared to control participants.
Principle conclusion: Our results indicated that elevated levels of tau protein, Aβ(1-42) and ratio of Aβ(1-42)/ Aβ(1-40) and decreased levels of Aβ(1-40) can be used to β diagnose AD pathogenicity. As a result, blood-based biomarkers are predicted to provide crucial therapeutic solutions to promote early detection and screening for AD.