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ISSN: 1935-1232 (P)

ISSN: 1941-2010 (E)

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Research Article - Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses ( 2022) Volume 0, Issue 0

The Role of Teacher Interpersonal Communication with Autistic Students in Developing Social Skills
Mohammad Nayef Ayasrah1*, Mohammad Abedrabbu Alkhawaldeh2, Mohamad Ahmad Saleem Khasawneh3 and Fatima Yousef Awad Alnajjar4
 
1Associate Professor of Special Education, Al Balqa Applied University/ Faculty of Educational Scienc, Jordan
2Special Education Department, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia
3Special Education Department, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia
4Special Education Department, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia
 
*Corresponding Author:
Mohammad Nayef Ayasrah, Associate Professor of Special Education, Al Balqa Applied University/ Faculty of Educational Scienc, Jordan, Email: [email protected]

Received: 10-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. CSRP-22-76806; Accepted Date: Oct 25, 2022 ; Editor assigned: 11-Oct-2022, Pre QC No. CSRP- 22-76806 (PQ); Reviewed: 22-Oct-2022, QC No. CSRP-22-76806(Q); Revised: 25-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. CSRP-22-76806 (R); Published: 26-Oct-2022, DOI: 10.3371/CSRP.MMWY.100127

Abstract

Throughout this study, the question of the significance of interpersonal interaction between instructors and children with autism in the process of gaining social skills was examined. Because the application of the role of interpersonal communication between instructors and students with autism varies from that of other schools, it is required for teachers and students with autism to assume the role of interpersonal communication. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of interpersonal interaction between instructors and autistic students on the development of social skills for autistic students as well as the development of social skills for instructors. Observation, interviews, and audio recordings were used to gather data for this descriptive qualitative research with four distinct informants. Miles and Huberman's interactive analysis was used for the data analysis. This analysis includes the presenting of data, the shortening of data, the presentation of data, and the formulation and verification of a conclusion. The results of this inquiry reveal that both verbal and nonverbal means of communication play a role in the teacher's interpersonal communication role. Imagine a discourse in which the teacher facilitates nonverbal communication via body language, sign language, and physical touch. One of the two teachers should include it into a variety of activities that lead to habituation. The development of social skills in autistic children is rather good, as shown by the existence of social skills in autistic students, such as the capacity to communicate with empathy, collaborate well, and make good eye contact.

Keywords

Teacher interpersonal communication • Autistic students • Social skills

Introduction

Not only are people considered to be subjects of education, but they are also considered to be objects of education in and of themselves. This places individuals in a pivotal role within the field of education. The manner and path taken by education are determined by the human beings it serves [1]. Since humans are the custodians of education, it is only logical for people to design educational systems for their personal advantage as well as the benefit of civilization. People have the potential and capacity to be developed, nourished, and empowered, which results in the people having personalities and characters of their own [2].

Education is essential not just for typically developing youngsters but also for children who have been identified as having special educational needs. A unique disorder is indicated by the word "Exceptional Children," although another term that may be used instead is "Children with Special Needs." Children that have special needs may be distinguished from one another by a variety of traits. In the same way, children who have special needs need more attention from their surroundings in order for them to develop properly [3]. When it comes to educational services, each kid who has special needs will undoubtedly be treated differently, and this will be determined by the deficiencies that the child is now facing so that the services can adequately reach the child. Children who have autism are a subset of the population of children who have special needs and go through stages of development in which they face challenging obstacles in the areas of behavior, emotions, interacting with others, and social skills. Autistic children are solely concerned with the things they can directly manipulate. If you try to divert them while they are playing before they are really ready, you will just end up making the situation worse for them emotionally [4]. On the other side, their thoughts are quickly diverted, and they often struggle to concentrate on what they are doing. They struggle with issues that manifest themselves both emotionally and in numerous ways as a direct result of their habits of conduct. Autistic children always have a singular concentration on themselves.

Children who have autism tend to engage in activities and motions that are repetitive, which is one of the defining characteristics of the disorder [5]. Autism manifests itself in a variety of ways, including a lack of social skills and unfocused eye contact when communicating with other people; being told not to turn around; reluctance to socialize and play with friends; being preoccupied with their own world; an absence of empathy in the social environment; and even an inability to understand other people's speech [6].

Children that suffer from autism have a more difficult time engaging with other people, which makes it more challenging for them to adapt to the environment they are in. Because of this, the youngsters in question need a remedy that will assist them in prevailing over this obstacle. One of the things that can be done to assist autistic children operate more normally in the social sphere is to train autistic children to communicate successfully with other people [7]. This is one of the things that can be done. One of the most important talents necessary for human life is the capacity for verbal and written communication. To communicate socially with other individuals, human beings have a basic need for communication as a prerequisite. Communication allows for the expression of feelings, the demonstration of self-identity, wants, and hopes, the development of a self-concept, the building of relationships, and the ability to know and comprehend all events that occur in life around a person [8]. Communication also allows for the development of a self-concept. Because people will learn how to behave via the process of communicating with one another, in the same manner that they learn conduct through their interaction with other people and the environment in which they find themselves. It is hard to separate communication from social life because via communication, a person is able to employ solutions in order to overcome the obstacles that he confronts. This makes it impossible to separate communication from social life. It is difficult to learn how to talk with other human beings or act in a civilized manner toward other people if one does not have access to communication [9].

People are able to channel the wants and requirements that they have via the interactions that they have with one another; as a result, people need connection with other humans in order to be able to preserve their existence. If the communication that is provided to autistic children is successful, then the autistic children and the environment around them will be able to develop positive social skills. A situation like this is analogous to that of autistic youngsters [10]. Therefore, the kind of information transmission that is known as interpersonal communication is the one that is regarded to be the most effective, and the process may be carried out in a way that is quite uncomplicated. On a daily basis, every single human being, even youngsters diagnosed with autism, will participate in at least one kind of communication. It's important to keep in mind that communication is one of the best ways to improve your social skills with other people. They won't be able to engage with the other people in their area until they have access to communication, and once they have it, it will be much easier for them to talk with the other people in their surroundings [11].

Communication can be broken down into two components that both involve human beings when the educational process as a whole is considered: students acting as communicants and instructors performing the role of communicators [12]. When viewed from this perspective, communication can be broken down into two components that both involve human beings. When talking about education at the primary and secondary levels, the instructor is referred to as "the teacher," while the learner is called "the student." The role of the teacher's interpersonal interaction with the pupils is one that bears a lot of weight when it comes to the teaching of social skills to autistic youngsters [13]. Teachers play a vital role in assisting autistic children in improving their social skills and overcoming the social barriers that they encounter. This is as a result of the fact that the teacher is the one who is responsible for playing the most significant part in the process of education. Reinforcement is an important part of the process for helping autistic children develop the behavior that is expected of them, and their instructors play an important role in this process [14].

Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder undoubtedly need the aid of a companion teacher who is able to encourage their development all along the process of learning. Individualized teaching is required for autistic students since the teacher is the variable that has the biggest effect in the process of developing a learning process for autistic students [15]. The extent of a teacher's influence can be determined by a number of factors, including the teacher's point of view regarding the subject matter that students should be taught, the teacher's ability to facilitate learning (their mastery of educational psychology and teaching methods), the teacher's dedication to the profession, the teacher's faith in the students' capacity to retain information, and the scientific foundation of the subject matter that is currently being studied. As a consequence of this, the teacher will provide a number of educational strategies that are unique from those that students employ when they are enrolled in regularly scheduled sessions [16].

The role of interpersonal communication between instructors and students with autism is essential because it will make the relationship between the two outstanding. This will make the role of interpersonal communication between teachers and students with autism crucial. Because of this, it will be vital for there to be interpersonal contact between instructors and pupils who have autism [17]. On the other hand, teachers are able to educate children with autism social skills as well as the capacity to aid autistic pupils in strengthening their social talents. As a consequence of this, the academic process will go smoothly at school in the years to come. Autism is a developmental disorder that affects how a person interacts socially and communicates with the environment around them. It is thought that children who have autism will ultimately be able to talk [18].

Methods

This study is an example of a qualitative research methodology. Entering certain social settings, making observations, and conducting interviews with persons who are knowledgeable about the social situation that is being researched are the techniques or methods that are used to select informants [19]. The procedure that was followed to identify the source of the information included two steps: This approach may be done officially via an authorized person such as a teacher and through a preliminary interview. During this interview, the researcher evaluates the subject according to the criteria that must be satisfied in order to conduct interviews [20]. The data that has been collected will be analyzed using a qualitative approach to the interactive model that was proposed by Miles and Huberman. This model consists of four main things: data collection, data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion drawing/verification as something that intertwines before, during, and after collecting data in parallel forms, to build general insights that are called analysis (Miles and Huberman) [21].

Conclusion

Verbal and non-verbal modes of communication are both viable options for interpersonal contact between instructors and students with autism. pupils and instructors are able to communicate verbally via the use of photos, while teachers are able to communicate non-verbally with kids through the use of body language and touch. First, the use of sign language and other body motions to communicate with children who are unable to verbally express whether or not they are hungry. This is often done by the instructor communicating with the students via various hand gestures. Second, there is the use of physical touch, in which autistic class teachers make use of touch media to support the process of delivering social skills to students. For example, these teachers might assist students with certain activities that the students themselves do not understand when they are verbally or visually signaled. Verbal and non-verbal communication are connected via behaviors that are ingrained as habits, namely the habit of greeting one another on a daily basis, the practice of being compassionate toward one another, and the habit of working together. According to the review of the teacher's assessment of the children, the outcomes of the development of abilities among autistic kids who attend this school are pretty satisfactory. From the time they are young, children have difficulty communicating effectively until the present day, when they have developed sufficient communication abilities and already possess social skills such as empathy and the ability to form friendships with one another.

Results and Discussion

The results of the research that were shown earlier demonstrated that the teacher makes use of both verbal and non-verbal modes of communication with the class. Interpersonal communication refers to conversations that take place directly between two or more people in the same physical location. Because of the nature of this kind of communication, each participant has the ability to instantly observe the replies of the other people engaged, both vocally and nonverbally [22]. Forms of verbal communication that are learned via repetition and habituation for autistic children, using organized concepts as the basis for their education and instruction. And generally, the activities that autistic children engage in are generated from a regular and organized routine, both at school and at home (the environment), starting with waking up and finishing with going back to sleep. This routine may be described as "the environment." In order for them to be successful in school, children who have autism need to be conditioned or habituated to follow a regular routine. This is in accordance with the results of the study, which revealed that autistic students profited by cultivating the practice of greeting new people they encountered, as well as greeting their professors and parents each morning. This is in line with the findings of the research. At addition to that, this activity was carried out in the students' homes.

The education of the pupils diagnosed with autism is supplemented by visual aids such as images provided by the instructor [23]. This is consistent with the findings of prior studies, which show that autistic kids get the interpersonal communication development model for their peers via the use of photographs. In addition, physical contact and sign language are also included into this concept. It is without a doubt vital for each and every teacher to use a variety of image-based forms of media in order to facilitate an easier learning experience for their class's pupils. Indicators and gestures used in body language include pointing, shaking the head, nodding, and other motions of a similar kind. This ushers in the beginning of the phase of the identification process in which the individual's body language is used. In addition, the instructor will teach pupils new terminology by utilizing different facial expressions, touching their lips, and using their hands. Teachers who work with pupils who have autism spectrum disorder need to make use of touch media to help the process of teaching their students. For instance, autistic kids can need help with certain activities because they are unable to comprehend how such activities function on their own. signaled with the naked eye of the human subject

The process of interpersonal communication, which can either take place orally or non-verbally, works hand in hand with De Vito's humanistic approach, which includes components such as openness, empathy, supporting attitude, positive attitude, and equality. Interpersonal communication can take place either orally or non-verbally [24]. A sense of comfort and confidence in the learning process brought on by the instructor's combination of verbal and nonverbal teaching When a teacher has a great capacity for empathy, they are also better equipped to communicate their message to the children in their classroom. This is due to the fact that a profoundly significant impression is left behind when one communicates with a strong feeling of empathy.

The portion of this study that stands out as the most good is the support component, which is meant for autistic teenagers whose development has not improved. According to what was said by the Principal, assistance for autistic students is provided by instructors in a way that is consistent with and continues throughout the whole school day. When it comes to children who have difficulties communicating, it is the responsibility of the educator to facilitate the child's ability to learn, to make and maintain eye contact, and to communicate both vocally and non-verbally [25]. In this case, the support that is supplied to the instructor is on a very close and personal level. Because taking on a supportive attitude toward children with autism on the part of teachers will result in much increased growth on the part of the students being taught in such a setting.

Not only that, but the positive side, which is the job of the teacher in this scenario, is always friendly towards oneself and autistic pupils, fostering behavior that respects autistic students. Additionally, the negative side is the function of the antagonist in this scenario. The teacher believes that during the course of the training, students will acquire a deeper level of comprehension. When children perform an activity that is frequently anticipated by instructors and parents in terms of the development of social skills in autistic children, the teacher demonstrates a positive attitude by providing positive reinforcement in the form of praise and gratitude to the students [26]. This shows that the teacher values the development of social skills in autistic children. Aspects of equality, in spite of the reality that each autistic student have a unique set of abilities. On the other hand, children who have autism have their own own set of special strengths that may be developed. It was said by one of the instructors that this school does not have any autistic children who are incapable; rather, all of the autistic children who attend this school are competent and have the ability to develop.

It has been demonstrated that successful interpersonal communication between teachers and autistic students, both verbally and non-verbally, along with the five aspects of a humanistic approach, is effective in developing social skills in autistic students. This is the case for both verbal and non-verbal communication. The improvement in social skills of individuals who, at the beginning of the program, were unable to accomplish a number of things but are now able to carry out a wide range of activities is one indication of the program's effectiveness. It is hard to separate the function that the instructor plays in interpersonal contact from the effectiveness of the social skills held by autistic pupils. Autism education must always include training on social skills for kids with autism, since this is a requirement for teachers [27]. In order for autistic kids to develop their social skills, it is also the responsibility of teachers to aid these individuals in growing acclimated to very modest incidents in the classroom. It is essential that this be carried out in a constant and reliable manner. In addition, there are parents who continuously support their children and who continue the education that their children's teachers impart at school. These parents are an invaluable resource for their children. As a result, their children are able to continue honing their social skills without leaving the house.

Acknowledgments

The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University for funding this work through Small Research Groups under grant number (RGP.2 /103/43)

References

Citation: Ayasrah MN, Alkhawaldeh MA, Saleem Khasawneh MA, Awad Alnajjar FY. "The Role of Teacher Interpersonal Communication with Autistic Students in Developing Social Skills". Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses 16S2 (2022) doi: 10.3371/CSRP.MMWY.100127

Copyright: 2022 Ayasrah MN, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.