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ISSN: 1935-1232 (P)

ISSN: 1941-2010 (E)

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Citations : 5129

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Case Report - Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses ( 2023) Volume 0, Issue 0

Utilization of Learning Media in Developing Social Interaction Skills for Early Childhood Children with Autism
Saleh Safeer Alkhathami1*
 
1Department of Psychology, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia
 
*Corresponding Author:
Dr.. Saleh Safeer Alkhathami, Department of Psychology, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia, Email: [email protected], [email protected]

Received: 21-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. CSRP-22-84403; Accepted Date: Jan 05, 2023 ; Editor assigned: 23-Dec-2022, Pre QC No. CSRP- 22-84403 (PQ); Reviewed: 01-Jan-2023, QC No. CSRP-22-84403 (Q); Revised: 04-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. CSRP-22-84403 (R); Published: 06-Jan-2023, DOI: 10.3371/CSRP.MMWY.100140

Abstract

This study is being conducted with the intention of determining the part that educational media plays in the process of promoting early childhood socializing skills. In this study, a qualitative research approach that was based on a case study design was applied. An interview with a school administration, observations of four toddlers diagnosed with autism, and data from an observation sheet filled out by a class teacher on the children's social development are some of the sources of information. Based on these data, it seems that visual and audio-visual media are two of the most efficient types of educational delivery. In the field of education, examples of visual media include picture cards and posters; examples of audio-visual media include movies, videos, and sound slides. Because of their exposure to educational media, children's willingness to make eye contact, respond appropriately when they are called, and engage in cooperative play with their peers are all indications that their social skills are improving. It is recommended that a lesson plan be utilized at Kindergarten for Special Needs to assist with the planning and execution of the learning process. Additionally, it is proposed that instructors be encouraged to be more creative in their use of media when instructing students.

Keywords

Learning Media • Social Interaction • ASD

Introduction

When one person does something that prompts a response from another, they are engaging in social interaction. Children are an inseparable part of our communities and their social interactions with others are an integral part of their development as individuals and as members of our society [1]. However, they are still learning about and adjusting to their immediate surroundings at this point in their lives, both at home and in their communities. After their homes, children's second social setting is their school, where they are in the process of learning how to interact with others outside of their immediate social circle [2]. Not every kid is naturally social, but that doesn't mean they won't have to learn how to connect with others so they can succeed in school. Some kids are just too impulsive or lively to play well with others, while others prefer to spend their time alone.

When a child's social development is disrupted, it may have far-reaching effects. Disturbance in social contact is one of the symptoms of autism [3]. If a person can form bonds with others and the world around them, we may say that they have developed social interaction skills. In contrast to autistic children, who have a hard time forming attachments to their peers, caregivers, and community, these kids are able to form meaningful interactions with these groups. Having meaningful relationships with other people is essential to thriving in society and may have far-reaching consequences for both the local community and the larger ecosystem.

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have difficulties with social interaction, communication, and conduct [4]. This is what makes it so challenging for autistic youngsters to form friendships and social relationships [5-8]. When teaching autistic children, it's important to keep in mind that their brains work in a very tangible way, therefore the tools they use to learn should be, too. Teachers of autistic children require access to learning media since it will facilitate the learning process and aid in the development of concrete understanding notions [9, 10]. A teacher should employ media while presenting material to students so that the material may be understood and retained by the students. Ultimately, it is intended that improvements in knowledge, attitudes, and skill sets would lead to observable shifts in behavior. Autistic children's attention is unpredictable and hard to guide and control [11]. Some autistic students show interest in the teacher-provided materials, but their reactions are typically out of the ordinary [12]. Another possibility is that one of them isn't showing any signals of interest or isn't even caring.

It's common knowledge that kids on the autism spectrum have trouble engaging with their peers and the world around them. When a child has autism, he or she seems to exist in a bubble, oblivious to the world around them. To sum up, it's clear that the media play a crucial role in helping students and teachers alike reach their educational and scholastic goals. Learning to make eye contact is a challenge. This requires a great deal of focused study on the part of the educator in order to provide an appropriate stimulus for the student. The learning of autistic children is greatly aided by careful selection and strategic usage of suitable media in this context [13].

Autism is characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and behavior in children. Children with autism spectrum disorders display a range of other symptoms, including sleep and eating issues, anger, and impulsive behavior [14]. Although there is professional agreement that there are several levels of causes for autism, the particular factors that cause children to become autistic have not been identified. Among them include congenital malformations, metabolic abnormalities, neurological illnesses, digestive problems, and heavy metal toxicity. Autism may also exist in children with hydrocephalus or other aberrant brain structures.

A person with autism may, in a way, get immersed in his realm. They struggle to maintain suitable and courteous speech in public. Several abstract meanings are ascribed to objects, and numerous non-verbal cues are sent during typical social interactions. To better simplify the learning process, instructors may use a range of mediums to impart knowledge to their students.

Some autistic children are mono-channel, meaning they can only interpret information from a single sense. It would be like attempting to teach a child to multitask by having him use just one of his senses at a time. Some autistic children, on the other hand, are "multi-channel," meaning that they need sensory input from several sources or modalities to fully absorb information. Therefore, instructors should pay particular attention to the needs of autistic children and the reasons for taking additional measures while employing instructional media.

The media's ability to attract and direct children's attention shines out in light of the intensity and uniqueness of his troubles in these areas. It takes considerable effort to excite autistic children, thus this is a significant problem. Teachers of autistic kids should emphasize creating eye contact with their students, attracting their attention, and striving to improve the children's capacity to concentrate [15-17]. Once the child is attentive and makes eye contact, the instructor may employ media to direct the child's attention to the lesson's goals. Because children with autism have the same physical condition of their five senses as children without the problem, the same types of learning media are accessible to children with autism as to children without the disorder.

Children with autism at an early age may benefit from the same educational material as normally developing children [18]. All types of print, visual, audiovisual, real-world items and computer media depend on or represent people. However, greater care must be taken in the creation and selection of media for children with autism to ensure that it is not harmful to children and is easy enough for them to comprehend when used in the context of the learning process, taking into account the unique challenges faced by these children.

Methods

Both a qualitative research technique and a case study methodology were used in the conducting of this study. In the course of this study, the case study technique will be used to carry out an in-depth analysis of the part that instructional media plays in the growth of social interaction in children diagnosed with autism while they are still in early childhood. To collect data for this study, the researchers relied on direct observation techniques, which included the utilization of observation sheets, direct communication strategies, which included the utilization of interview sheets, and documentary procedures, which included the utilization of documentation tools. The actions in qualitative data analysis are carried out interactively and continue unabated until they have been completed, which leads the data to become saturated. Activities that include the processing and interpretation of data. Regarding the use of triangulation and member checks to authenticate the data that was gathered for this study:

Results and Discussion

Teachers make use of a variety of audiovisual and visual learning tools to teach children how to get along with their peers. Posters and picture cards are two forms of visual media; picture cards show pictures of letters, numbers, animals, and fruits, while posters offer visuals that are comparable to those seen on picture cards. In this context, the term "film media" refers to animated shorts for children, while "video media" and "sound slide media" refer, respectively, to children's songs and sound slides that teach topics such as the names of colors, animals, and fruits. In almost every school nowadays, teachers use some form or another of media in their lessons.

The teacher makes use of visual media by first preparing the pictures that are going to be taught, then carefully explaining the photos, then providing the students with questions and assignments, and lastly repeating the images. Instead, when using audiovisual media, the teacher prepares the necessary equipment, such as laptops and sound, explains the topic that will be watched, adjusts the child's sitting position so that the teacher can maintain control of the child, explains the topic of the media that is being watched, and invites children to follow the sound that is spoken and ask questions. The audiovisual media pattern is carried out by the instructor presenting it to the students, while the visual media pattern is carried out on an individual basis with the instructor going around to each child and asking them individual questions. During the reading and writing activities, the teacher will utilize media such as picture cards and posters. After recess, the instructor will use audiovisual media such as movies, videos, and sound slides.

In almost every school nowadays, teachers use some form or another of media in their lessons. The teacher will begin by preparing the visuals that are going to be used in the class. Next, the instructor will systematically explain the visuals. After that, the instructor will provide the students with questions and assignments. Finally, the instructor will repeat the visuals. In contrast, while utilizing audiovisual material, the instructor is responsible for preparing the necessary equipment, such as computers and sound, before beginning the lesson. Next, the instructor will describe the content that will be shown, and then they will change the kid's seating posture so that the instructor can maintain control of the youngster. After then, they should allow the youngsters to ask questions and follow the sound that is said. The audiovisual media pattern is carried out by the instructor showing the media to the students, but the visual media pattern is carried out in a more decentralized form, with the instructor going to each student personally to ask questions. The teacher uses a variety of audiovisual materials, such as movies, videos, and sound slides, after the students have had a break for lunch to reinforce the reading and writing skills that were practiced during the day via the use of picture cards and posters.

In almost every school nowadays, teachers use some form or another of media in their lessons. The teacher will begin by preparing the visuals that are going to be used in the class. Next, the instructor will systematically explain the visuals. After that, the instructor will provide the students with questions and assignments. Finally, the instructor will repeat the visuals. In contrast, while utilizing audiovisual material, the instructor is responsible for preparing the necessary equipment, such as computers and sound, before beginning the lesson. Next, the instructor will describe the content that will be shown, and then they will change the kid's seating posture so that the instructor can maintain control of the youngster. After then, they should allow the youngsters to ask questions and follow the sound that is said. The audiovisual media pattern is carried out by the instructor showing the media to the students, but the visual media pattern is carried out in a more decentralized form, with the instructor going to each student personally to ask questions. The teacher uses a variety of audiovisual materials, such as movies, videos, and sound slides, after the students have had a break for lunch to reinforce the reading and writing skills that were practiced during the day via the use of picture cards and posters.

According to the results, the development of the Subject's social relationships seems to be altered as a result of the usage of various learning media. Several times throughout the investigation, the Subject turned his attention to both the researcher and his other students. The teacher had to resort to using physical force to get the subject to turn when he was called on to do so. The subject takes pleasure in engaging with alphabet posters and can recognize each letter by name while singing the song that corresponds to that letter. The Subject also likes to play games with fruit picture cards and can accurately name the fruits that are shown. The subject walked up to his buddy, who was gazing at a card that depicted a piece of fruit and referred to the picture that was on the card. His friend continued to stare at the card.

The subject can identify the number without being instructed to do so and combine the same numbers when directed to do so by the instructor. The subject also enjoys playing image cards with his friends whenever the class teacher instructs utilizing picture cards to teach the numbers 1-10. Aside from that, the Subject's absolute favorite thing to do is watch with his close friends. The subject amazed his friends by singing "my balloon song" from the children's music video, from which he remembered a variety of tunes. During the time that the individual was being observed by the researcher, he did not show any evidence of empathy toward his friends or his social environment, which suggests that he is unable to empathize with the emotions that are experienced by other people.

The use of various forms of media in the classroom has been associated with a change throughout time in the manner in which students interact with one another. When asked to identify a fruit with the use of a visual aid, the subject reacts appropriately to the instructor's directions (in this case, a deck of image cards depicting fruits). The subject pays attention to vocal signals and spins around when his name is shouted out. A third participant, who was preoccupied with a deck of numbered cards, was approached by a second participant, who then began a conversation with both of them. The subject is partial to audiovisual content; he often watches videos of children's songs and sings along to them as he does so. When the conversation started to get upsetting and emotional, we stopped watching the childish music video. During the time that the individual was being observed by the researcher, he did not show any evidence of empathy toward his friends or his social environment, which suggests that he is unable to empathize with the emotions that are experienced by other people.

The results of observational research looked at how the usage of learning media influences the expansion of social interaction on the subject matter that was being studied. The participants may make eye contact with the teacher, and they will make an effort to turn when they are prompted to do so, which is beneficial for the researchers. Because of his lack of movement, he was unable to spend much time with the other students; instead, he tinkered with his fingers and anything else he could find on his desk. The researchers saw a nonverbal person who was unable to do anything but hold a picture card and had no clue what the teacher was saying. The Subject likes making use of AV equipment, pays great attention to what is being shown on screen, and even sometimes communicates his pleasure for what he is watching by doing things such as leaping up and down and clapping his hands. During the time that the individual was being observed by the researcher, he did not show any evidence of empathy toward his friends or his social environment, which suggests that he is unable to empathize with the emotions that are experienced by other people.

Use of Learning Media in Developing Social Interaction

Teachers who are skilled in educating their students via the use of different types of media are those who are aware of how to utilize these forms of media to their students' benefit, both as a source of information and as a vehicle for imparting knowledge to their pupils. Instructional strategies that include media-based learning put a significant amount of responsibility on the shoulders of the individual teacher [19].

To get the most out of the media, there are a few different aspects that need to be taken into consideration during the pre-use preparation process. These aspects include the following: a) Familiarize yourself with the guidelines provided by the media you want to use. Before you can go on to step b) employ the substance in question, you will first need to arrange the necessary equipment. (c) If the medium will be used in a collaborative context, everyone who will be participating in the activity should be informed of the learning objectives in advance. (d) Ensure that the media are placed in the appropriate locations so that students have a clear view of the instructional material and/or access to it.

When children are using learning media, it is important to prevent situations that might disturb their peace of mind, attention, and ability to concentrate. Make the most of the tools provided by the media to ensure that young people are receiving information that is both informative and accurate. The job of the evaluation comprises the teacher asking the students questions that are designed to encourage them to look for more information [20]. After-viewing activities are intended to aid children in retaining the knowledge that is delivered in various forms of media.

According to findings gleaned from student evaluations, teacher interviews, and several other sources of information, educators routinely integrate various forms of media into the educational process. Before the learning activities are carried out, the teacher will prepare the various modes of instruction. The teacher employs visual media such as picture cards and posters to explain or question each student individually, and the use of audiovisual media is shown via the use of demonstrations.

Therefore, it is reasonable to suppose that the teacher makes use of audiovisual material in the form of demonstrations and applies it to one student at a time. In addition, the instructor will use the media in the process of teaching and learning whenever the teaching and learning process is compatible with the procedure for making use of the media.

The Development of Social Interaction in Early Children with Autism

Children's attention may be raised and directed via the use of learning media, which in turn may improve their motivation to learn, their capacity to interact directly with their environment, and the possibility for children to study independently based on their capabilities and interests.

Interviews and observations showed that students who had previously avoided eye contact with the learning medium gradually warmed up to it, and even though it took several prompts, they eventually turned when called upon. This was shown to be the case even though they initially avoided eye contact with the learning medium. The subject and his friends also take great pleasure in incorporating other forms of media into their activities. Subjects They, like other subjects, can make eye contact when encouraged to do so via various forms of media and are motivated to turn their head when called, although they need continuous prodding to do so. The matter was brought up to his acquaintance, who at the time was participating in a game of singing image cards and playing cards.

Subject When you are speaking about the topic, they will sometimes look in your direction. The participant, having spent some time idly passing the time by sitting on the bench provided, ultimately began jumping and cheering along with the other participants in the audiovisual game. The subject is unable to make eye contact, does not want to turn when called, does not want to play with friends, is self-absorbed, and lacks empathy for others; but, when requested to sing, he may sometimes turn his head to look at the song sheet and sing along. When the Subject is feeling down, or even angry or sad enough to hurt himself, he may be encouraged to sing along with audiovisual media, and he can even learn to sing some of the songs he hears. If he can learn to sing some of the songs he hears, this will help Subject cope with his emotions and prevent him from hurting himself [21].

As a result of their increased usage of educational media, children are improving their ability to communicate and collaborate. The subject of the study grew up and gained new interests during the research, such as establishing eye contact and participating in group games. The subject has developed to the point where they are now interested in replying to their name, establishing eye contact, and participating in activities involving groups. Science fiction has not been given the chance to develop as the topic itself is becoming older (e.g., by showing an interest in making eye contact and turning in response to being called).

Conclusion

The use of visual and audiovisual media by teachers is one strategy for encouraging young children with autism to develop and maintain social connections. Examples of visual media include things like postcards and posters; examples of audiovisual media include things like movies, videos, and sound slides. The use of media as a teaching tool is in line with the generally established approach for the promotion of social interaction in young children who have autism. The teacher prepares the media for use, then guides the students step-by-step through every item of visual media while simultaneously instructing them on how to make use of the audiovisual media. The teacher may choose to explain things using any one of several various methods, depending on the specific needs of each kid in their class. At first, the child is unable to make eye contact, does not turn when called, does not want to play with his friends, and does not enjoy having fun or playing by himself. However, as the child continues to use learning media, these behaviors begin to change, and the child eventually begins to make eye contact, turns when called, wants to play with peers, and enjoys having fun or playing by himself.

References

Citation: Alkhathami SS "Utilization of Learning Media in Developing Social Interaction Skills for Early Childhood Children with Autism". Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses 16S2 (2022) doi: 10.3371/ CSRP.MMWY.100140

Copyright: 2022 Alkhathami SS, This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution license which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.