Research Article - Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses ( 2022) Volume 0, Issue 0
The Impact of Social Factors on Bullying among Students with Learning DisabilitiesYaser Numan Al Sabi*
Yaser Numan Al Sabi, CCC-SLP Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences Program, Hekma School of Health, Behavioral Sciences an, Saudi Arabia, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 09-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. CSRP-22-82911; Accepted Date: Dec 19, 2022 ; Editor assigned: 06-Dec-2022, Pre QC No. CSRP- 22-82911 (PQ); Reviewed: 16-Dec-2022, QC No. CSRP- 22- 82911 (Q); Revised: 18-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. CSRP-22-82911 (R); Published: 20-Dec-2022, DOI: 10.3371/CSRP.MMWY.100137
This study aimed at identifying the social factors that lead to bullying among students with learning difficulties in Irbid Governorate by identifying the social factors that push some students with learning difficulties to practice bullying behavior. The study also aimed at reaching a set of perceptions and proposals to mitigate the impact of social factors that lead some students with learning difficulties to practice bullying behavior. the study used the analytical descriptive approach, based on the comprehensive social survey, using the social factors instrument. The study sample consisted of (30) students with learning difficulties, who have been classified as showing bullying behavior and who study in Irbid city during the academic year 2021/2022. To answer the study questions, a scale of social factors was developed, which consisted of (40) paragraphs distributed on three dimensions, personal factors, factors related to peer characteristics, and family factors. This study found that the average ratings of students with learning difficulties regarding the social factors that lead to students with learning difficulties practicing bullying behavior were with a medium rating.
Students with learning disabilities • Bullying • Aggression • Jordan education
Bullying among school students is a negative phenomenon that is spreading increasingly. It is becoming a worrying personal and social problem because of the negative impacts it leaves on the emotional, cognitive, and social development of students. Bullying endangers the learning environment and expose it to dangerous behaviors. The literature shows that education and learning become possible in a safe environment that nurtures the psychological and social well-being of students and protects them from violence, danger, and threat . Students come to school with their different personalities that they built from their families and communities. Therefore, the social factors are fundamental in the formation of characters and personalities that are reflected by specific behaviors. Families raise their children in specific manners and multiple methods. Families use several methods, such as using tolerance, where parents accept and tolerate their ideas and aspirations. This approach to parenting makes the child cooperative, loyal, sociable, gentle, emotionally stable, and playful, and eventually becoming confident .
However, some children are raised in families that bring up their children on domination and cruelty, as the parents use force to dominate the opinions and thoughts of children without paying attention to their desires and tendencies. This leads to the formation of a timid, fearful personality that feels incompetent. The child’s feeling of rejection by the parents threatens feelings of security and induces feelings of helplessness and frustration. The results could create a barrier between the child and the outer world.Therefore, some parents create the sense of dependability in their children while others create the sense of self-reliance .
Given the seriousness of the phenomenon of bullying in the school field, we find a scarcity of studies in Jordan, especially in Irbid Governorate, that tackle this phenomenon. Therefore, the researcher considers the study of this phenomenon as important to analyze the social factors leading to bullying behavior among students with learning difficulties in Irbid Governorate.
Several studies focused on the important role family life in affecting bullying behavior , as some students with learning difficulties who practice bullying in their schools are victims coming from harsh familial environments. In addition to social and financial difficulties . Students with learning disabilities who practice bullying often come from families that lack warmth, affection, and order in the home and have difficulty sharing their feelings. They often describe themselves as separate from each other. Also, parents of students with learning disabilities who are bullies rarely discipline or supervise their children, and they practice harsh and punitive methods to discipline them .
Most of the studies dealing with bullying behavior tend to pay attention to the causes and motives leading to deviation, the causes of it, or ways to prevent and treat it. The studies that dealt with bullying and social factors were less or almost very few. With the progress of social sciences, it seeks to present a renewed vision to reduce bullies and change them into healthy individuals in terms of physical, spiritual, psychological, social, and professional. Therefore, the researcher focused on the problem of identifying the social factors associated with bullying among students with learning difficulties in Irbid Governorate.
The following questions were formulated to help in achieving the objectives:
1. What are the social factors that lead to the practice of bullying behavior by students with learning difficulties?
2. Are there statistically significant differences in the availability of social factors leading to the practice of bullying behavior by students with learning difficulties due to the grade, age, and economic level of the family?
Significance of the study
Bullying is a societal problem that acquires a great deal of danger and calls for the attention of researchers, whether at the global level, the Arab level, or the local level. The phenomenon of bullying and its treatment is not well-studied in Jordan, especially for student counselors and workers in the school dimension. The study raises many research points that have not been studied before regarding the treatment and rehabilitation of students with learning difficulties who are bullies, to help them overcome this problem. It is expected that the results of the current study will contribute to assisting counselors, parents, specialists, and decision-makers in effective planning, and constructive guidance for the category of students with learning difficulties in light of the relationship between social factors and bullying. The practical importance is represented in the findings and recommendations of the current study, which can be put into practice.
Delimitations of the study
The study has several limitations. The thematic limitations include covering the topic of the social factors leading to bullying behavior among students with learning difficulties in Irbid Governorate. The spatial limitations include the middle school schools affiliated with the Directorate of Education in the Irbid Governorate. Time limits include applying the study in the second semester of the year 2021/2022. Human limitations include the sample of the study, which is students with learning disabilities who have learning difficulties in primary schools in the Directorate of Education in Irbid Governorate. The researcher relied on the counselors’ records that organize bullies among students with learning disabilities.
Bullying is one of the negative behavioral manifestations prevalent in schools, and this behavior is widespread in schools at rates that goes beyond the expectations of parents and teachers. Bullying is spread at high rates in schools. Most students with learning disabilities practice bullying . Some of these students are bullies themselves or just victims, or even bystanders. These roles are exchanged in different circumstances and balances of power among students with learning difficulties. Most researchers agree that the concept of bullying is either physical, verbal, or psychological and is against another person. There is also agreement that bullying behavior is distinguished from aggression by the imbalance in physical strength between the bully and his victim, as it is difficult for the victim to defend herself, whether because of physical or psychological weakness or the outnumber of bullies .
Forms of bullying
First, verbal bullying consists of ridicule, defamation of persons, blackmail, telephone calls, false accusations, and calling names based on gender, race, religion, social class, or disability. The bully practices this type of bullying to affect the self-esteem and self-concept of the student/victim as it is practiced in front of a group of peers . Verbal harassment is the most common form of bullying for both males and females .
Second, physical bullying consists of hitting, biting, kicking, punching, pulling hair, slapping, scratching, and spitting. However, the harm caused by physical bullying is not significant, as it might lead to generating sympathy for the victim, and thus blame for the bully .
Third, social bullying, which is represented in underestimating the victim, lowering the degree of his sense of self, including neglect, isolation, excluding the victim from social circles and activities conducted outside school .
Fourth, another important form is sexual bullying, which has several forms, such as sexual comments, hostilities, sexual rumors, direct sexual contact, and displaying sexual materials such as films and pictures .
Factors leading to bullying
Personal factors: Bullying is based on reckless behaviors, or based on boredom behaviors because bullies believe that the child who is being bullied deserves it. Other reasons behind bullying is the anxiety of the child or his/her unhappiness with the family, or that they have been victims of bullying in the past. The victim's emotional characteristics such as shyness and lack of friends may make him vulnerable to bullying .
Psychological factors: The feeling of frustration for a child or teenager in the teacher generates a feeling of anger, tension, and emotion because there are obstacles that prevent him from achieving his goals. This leads him to practice bullying behavior against others or himself because of the feeling that it empties his pressures and tensions. Also, the family pressures the student to achieve a high level of achievement that exceeds his abilities and potential, which causes anxiety for the student. All of this may eventually lead to depression, and release these emotions through bullying behavior .
Social factors: Social bullying is one of the most harmful types of bullying and has the most impact on the bullied individual (the victim), as it inflicts serious emotional harm that is unnoticed by teachers and adults. Social bullying takes a form of social control that is exercised to harm others and influence their acceptance among their peers .
School factors: They include the school’s policy and culture, the physical environment, school companions, the role of the teacher and his relationship with the student, the method and size of punishment, the wrong provocative practices of some teachers, the weak personality of the teacher, or the dictatorial character, or the discrimination between students with learning difficulties. They also include the teacher’s lack of knowledge of the subject matter. These combined factors may help to reinforce and demonstrate bullying behavior by some students with learning difficulties .
Many factors help in the emergence of bullying behavior. The weak family and living relationship of the student, the weak personality of the teacher, and the student’s incompatibility with the society in which he lives, all of these factors may help to strengthen and show the bullying behavior of some students with learning difficulties. The problem of bullying has negative effects on the bully and his victim, as he suffers from problems in forming trusted friendships, and the victim student becomes depressed and anxious .
There is a correlation between addiction in its various forms and peer pressure or perceived social support from friends in adolescence. And that perceived social support from friends acts as a protective factor against peer orientation toward addiction in general. The support provided by friends and peers in the school was the most effective in confronting bullying behaviors, and was able to allow the victim students to confront their peers who are bullies inside the school . The bully reinforces his behavior by the individuals surrounding him, such as colleagues and friends, and achieves stardom among his colleagues, which makes him feel that he is different and distinguished
On the other hand, the literature showed the important role of some family factors in bullying behavior, as some students with learning difficulties who bully in their schools are basically victims in their homes and come from families that suffer from difficulties in the relationship between father and child . They often describe themselves as not close to each other . In addition, a family that pressures one of its children to achieve a high level of achievement that exceeds his abilities and potential causes anxiety, and all of this may eventually lead to depression, and release these emotions through bullying behavior . The absence of social support, especially provided by the family and the school, is associated with the emergence of bullying behavior among students with learning difficulties, or their exposure to bullying, which is the victim of bullying .
The effectiveness of applying a counseling program to educate children about using strategies to confront cyberbullying. The study was applied to a sample of (232) children. The research used the descriptiveanalytical approach and the quasi-experimental approach, and the results of the research revealed that there are statistically significant differences among the children’s awareness questionnaire using strategies to confront electronic bullying according to the different variables of the study (the child’s gender, the child’s age, the mother’s work, the mother’s educational level, the average monthly income of the family).
The teachers’ practice of extracurricular activities and their role in reducing bullying behavior among students with learning difficulties . The study used the descriptive-analytical method, and the study sample consisted of 152 general education teachers and teachers with learning difficulties in the eastern region, and they were chosen by a simple random method. The results showed the presence of statistically significant differences in the reality of teachers’ practice of extracurricular activities to reduce bullying of people with learning difficulties due to the gender variable in favor of females. The results also showed the presence of statistically significant differences in the reality of teachers’ practice of extracurricular activities as a means to reduce bullying of people with learning difficulties due to the academic qualification variable in favor of teachers with postgraduate studies.
The most common dimensions and behaviors of bullying, which female students with learning difficulties are exposed to in the primary stage, from the point of view of teachers and mothers in the city of Dammam . The study found that the most common dimensions of bullying behaviors among the target group from the point of view of teachers and mothers were social bullying behaviors, followed by verbal bullying behaviors, and physical bullying behaviors. The results also revealed that the most common behaviors were the student being ignored by her classmates in the social dimension, interrupted when speaking in front of her classmates in the verbal dimension, and she is beaten by her classmates in the physical dimension.
The social factors that lead to the spread of bullying among secondary school students and the suggestions for how secondary school students deal with bullying . The study found that the most important social factors leading to the phenomenon of bullying were family violence and family instability, followed by friends bullying, lack of self-confidence, and a weak sense of safety.
Population and sample
The study population consisted of all students with learning difficulties in primary schools in Irbid governorate, whose number was (700) students. The study sample consisted of students with learning difficulties who practice bullying behavior and who are registered in the student counselors’ records, where their number reached (15) students, which is equivalent to (1.875%). of the total number of students with learning difficulties. The following (Tables 1- 3) show a description of the study sample:
|Less than 9||2||13.33|
The researcher determined the objective of the scale, which is “measuring the social factors that lead to bullying behavior among students with learning difficulties in Irbid Governorate.” Various Arab and foreign references, scientific theses, and field visits to the study community were reviewed, which dealt with providing social programs or social services. The most important of these measures dealt with the social factors that affect bullying behavior in order to form a perception of the scale's statements and paragraphs.
Validity and reliability of the instrument
The content validity is a test to investigate whether the instrument measures what we want it to measure and not something else . The validity of the content was achieved by presenting the instrument to (10) judges who specialized in special education. Based on their review, the instrument was modified to have 43 items, as shown in annex (1).
The reliability of the study instrument was verified by following the test-retest method on an exploratory sample of (10) students from outside the study sample, and the application was applied after two weeks. The Pearson Correlation coefficient was calculated between the degrees of the two applications to calculate the reliability coefficient, which was (0.882). This value was considered appropriate for this study [22-29].
Result and Discussion
Results of the first question
To answer the first question, the mean scores and standard deviations of the responses of the sample members to the items of the social factors related to the student’s style and leading to bullying behavior were calculated, and the results were as follows.
Table 4 shows that the mean score of the responses of the sample members to the items related to social factors that lead to bullying behavior ranged between 2.43 and 2.94, where most of the items received medium response scores.
|No.||Rank||Item||Mean score||Standard deviation||level|
|11||1||I used to not listen to others, whoever they were.||2.94||1.43||Medium|
|4||2||I am happy when I get my colleagues in trouble with each other.||2.88||1.473||Medium|
|8||3||I am used to hurting my colleagues, especially the successful ones.||2.86||1.15||Medium|
|9||4||I enjoy it when I criticize others.||2.83||1.385||Medium|
|12||5||I underestimate the successes of others.||2.82||1.4||Medium|
|10||6||I hate others.||2.77||1.331||Medium|
|7||7||I tend to be cruel to students with learning difficulties.||2.71||1.371||Medium|
|5||8||I tend to talk to students with learning difficulties in impolite language.||2.68||1.402||Medium|
|2||9||I tend to make fun of students with learning difficulties.||2.67||1.287||Medium|
|13||10||I enjoy it when I impose my word on students with learning difficulties.||2.59||1.286||Medium|
|3||11||I tend to display physical strength in front of students with learning difficulties.||2.58||1.323||Low|
|6||12||I enjoy controlling others.||2.58||1.413||Low|
|1||13||I enjoy leading others in all situations||2.43||1.467||Low|
|Total mean score||2.72ٍ||1.129||Medium|
To identify the social factors associated with peer pressure that leads to bullying behavior, the mean scores and standard deviation of the responses of the students were calculated as shown in the following table.
Table 5 shows that the mean scores of the responses of the sample members to the questionnaire on social factors related to the peer pressure that leads to bullying behavior ranged between 3.00 and 3.26. The table shows that the items on the social factors associated with peer pressure were medium according to the responses of the students.
|No.||Rank||Item||Mean score||Standard deviation||level|
|21||1||I bully my colleagues to protect myself from them.||3.26||1.275||Medium|
|17||2||I learned about smoking from bullies.||3.25||1.389||Medium|
|24||3||The students with learning difficulties ask the protection from the bully.||3.25||1.361||Medium|
|19||4||Students with learning disabilities who are bullies get the respect of other students with learning disabilities.||3.23||1.34||Medium|
|20||5||The sarcasm of my colleagues encourages me to practice violence against them.||3.23||1.37||Medium|
|22||6||Students with learning disabilities who are bullies can easily do anything.||3.23||1.275||Medium|
|15||7||My colleagues mistreat me.||3.21||1.272||Medium|
|18||8||Some students with learning difficulties provoke me to quarrel with them.||3.21||1.376||Medium|
|23||9||Students with learning disabilities fear the bully.||3.18||1.301||Medium|
|16||10||Bullies encourage me to make fun of teachers.||3||1.251||Medium|
|Total mean score||3.2||1.146||Medium|
To identify the social factors related to family factors that lead to bullying behavior, the mean scores and standard deviations of the responses of the students were calculated as shown in the following table.
Table 6 shows that the mean scores of the responses of the students to the items of the questionnaire on the social factors related to the family factors that lead to bullying behavior ranged between 2.42 and 2.80. The mean scores indicate that these responses were medium.
|No.||Rank||Item||Mean score||Standard deviation||level|
|34||1||My family punishes me if I forgive others.||2.8||1.201||Medium|
|27||2||My poor family circumstances force me to be violent towards others.||2.78||1.252||Medium|
|28||3||My family does not tolerate anyone.||2.76||1.186||Medium|
|29||4||Nobody in my family listens to my problems.||2.66||1.204||Medium|
|37||5||My family deals with me in a manner that makes me ashamed.||2.64||1.162||Medium|
|31||6||I feel injustice and unfair by my family's mistreatment of me.||2.62||1.216||Medium|
|33||7||My family treats me badly.||2.62||1.228||Medium|
|35||8||Nobody in the family asks if I've been away from home for a long time.||2.61||1.267||Medium|
|39||9||My family limits my participation in social events.||2.61||1.198||Medium|
|40||10||My parents use cruelty with me.||2.6||1.204||Medium|
|32||11||My family favors my brothers over me.||2.59||1.225||Medium|
|36||12||When my parents talk about my future, it is forbidden for me to interfere with it.||2.6||1.148||Medium|
|25||13||My family raised me to take my right by force.||2.55||1.196||Low|
|26||15||My family taught me to be victorious and not defeated.||2.53||1.151||Low|
|38||18||My parents impose their opinions on me.||2.44||1.209||Low|
|30||19||When there are problems at home, my parents always blame me.||2.43||1.3||Low|
|Total mean score||2.61||0.893||Medium|
These results could be because of the huge attention the Ministry of Education, represented by the Directorate of Education in the Irbid Governorate, is giving in counseling programs, and the availability of specialists in the field of psychological counseling in various schools to treat various psychological and behavioral disorders that students with learning difficulties are exposed to in those schools. These efforts contributed to the treatment of many behavioral disorders, including bullying behavior. The result of this question may be attributed to the spread of modern control methods far from corporal punishment in various schools, which contributed to deterring many students with learning difficulties from bullying their colleagues.
The reason the social factors played a moderate role among middle school students is due to the age stage of this group, which is the period of adolescence, and the readiness to assume social responsibilities, and to bring them to a degree of awareness of the social responsibilities entailed by them. Therefore, students at this stage feel social responsibility and feel their duty toward their friends, family, and society, and for this reason, these factors were at a moderate degree.
Results of the second question
esults of the second question To answer the second question, the mean scores and standard deviations of the response of the sample were calculated on the dimensions of social factors that lead to students with learning difficulties practicing bullying behavior according to the school grade variable, the age variable, and the economic status of the family. The results are presented in the following (Table 7).
|Dimension||School grade||No.||Mean score||Standard deviation|
|Factors due to peer pressure||Fourth||3||2.71||1.157|
|Total social factors||Fourth||3||2.3||0.5|
First: the school grade
To find out the significance of these differences, the one-way ANOVA analysis was conducted, and the results were as follow (Table 8):
|Dimension||Source of variance||Sum of squares||Freedom value||Mean square||F value||Sig.|
|Personal factors||Between groups||43.202||2||21.6||22.501||0|
|Factors due to peer pressure||Between groups||41.2||2||20.49||20.29||0|
|Family factors||Between groups||33.607||2||16.805||30.563||0|
|Total social factors||Between groups||32.486||2||16.243||41.429||0|
It is clear from (Table 8) that the significance level value was less than (0.05) in all dimensions, and this indicates the existence of statistically significant differences in the availability of social factors leading to the practice of bullying behavior attributed to the school grade variable. To find out which class categories have these differences, the least significant difference (LSD) test was conducted for comparison, and the results were as follow (Table 9):
|Dimension||School grade||Mean score||Fourth||Fifth|
|Factors due to peer pressure||Fourth||2.72||*|
|Total social factors||Fourth||2.3||*|
It is clear from (Table 9) that there are statistically significant differences in the availability of all dimensions of the social factors leading to the practice of bullying behavior by students with learning difficulties due to the school grade between fourth-grade primary students and fifth-grade students in favor of fifth-grade students. There was also a difference between fifth-grade students and sixth-grade students in favor of fifth-grade students. This indicates that the degree of social factors that lead to fifthgrade students’ practice of bullying behavior was more than that of students in both the fourth and sixth grades.
Second: the age variable
To find the impact of the students' age on their bullying behavior, the mean scores and standard deviations of the response of students were calculated on the dimensions of social factors that lead to practicing bullying behavior according to the age variable, and the results were as follow (Table 10):
|Dimension||Age||No.||Mean score||Standard deviation|
|Personal factors||Less than 9||3||2.33||0.797|
|Factors due to peer pressure||Less than 9||3||3.04||0.966|
|Family factors||Less than 9||3||2.34||0.704|
|Total social factors||Less than 9||3||2.57||0.516|
To find out the significance of these differences, the one-way ANOVA analysis was conducted, and the results were as follow (Table 11):
|Dimension||Source of variance||Sum of squares||Freedom value||Mean square||F value||Sig.|
|Personal factors||Between groups||52.66||2||26.33||29.715||0|
|Factors due to peer pressure||Between groups||27.552||2||13.775||12.279||0|
|Family factors||Between groups||29.083||2||14.541||24.841||0|
|Total social factors||Between groups||24.815||2||12.407||27.437||0|
It is clear from (Table 11) that the value of the significance level was less than (0.05) in all fields. This indicates the existence of statistically significant differences in the availability of social factors leading to the practice of students with learning difficulties of bullying behavior attributed to age. To find out between which age groups there are these differences, the LSD test was conducted for comparison, and the results were as follow (Table 12):
|Dimension||Age||Mean score||14||More than 15|
|Personal factors||Less than 9||2.13||*|
|Factors due to peer pressure||Less than 9||2.72||*|
|Family factors||Less than 9||2.04||*|
|Total social factors||Less than 9||2.3||*|
It is clear from (Table 12) that there are statistically significant differences in the availability of all areas of social factors leading to students with learning difficulties practicing bullying behavior due to age among those aged 11 and less and those aged 10 in favor of ages 11, and among those aged 12 and those aged 11 and over in favor of ages 11. This means that the degree of availability of social factors leading to bullying behavior for 11-year-olds is more than that of those aged 11 and over.
Third: the family’s economic status
To find the impact of the family’s economic status on the students’bullying behavior, the mean scores and standard deviations of the response of students were calculated on the dimensions of social factors that lead to practicing bullying behavior according to the family’s economic status variable, and the results were as follow (Table 13):
|Dimension||Economic level||No.||Mean score||Standard deviation|
|Factors due to peer pressure||Low||6||3.4||1.104|
|Total social factors||Low||6||2.89||0.74|
To find out the significance of these differences, the one-way ANOVA analysis was conducted, and the results were as follow (Table 14):
|Dimension||Source of variance||Sum of squares||Freedom value||Mean square||F value||Sig.|
|Personal factors||Between groups||2.552||2||1.275||1||0.37|
|Factors due to peer pressure||Between groups||2.243||2||1.22||0.85||0.429|
|Family factors||Between groups||0.3||2||0.15||0.185||0.83|
|Total social factors||Between groups||1.187||2||0.592||0.931||0.395|
It is clear from (Table 14) that the value of the significance level was greater than (0.05) in all fields. This indicates that there are no statistically significant differences in the availability of social factors leading to the practice of bullying behavior by students with learning difficulties that are attributed to the economic level. This indicates the similarity of the degree of availability of social factors leading to the practice of bullying behavior, regardless of the economic level
These results are attributed to the fact that fifth-grade students tend to be shy and reflective, while sixth-grade students tend to focus on skipping this educational stage and are preoccupied with their academic achievement. As for the age variable, the results showed that there is the availability of all dimensions of social factors that lead to students with learning difficulties practicing bullying behavior due to age. Students at the age of 12 are thinking about the new stage they want to move to. As for the family’s economic level variable, the results showed that there were no statistically significant differences at the significance level (α = 0.05) in the availability of social factors leading to students with learning difficulties practicing bullying behavior due to the economic level, and this indicates the similarity of the degree of availability of social factors leading to practicing bullying behavior, whatever the economic level.
In light of the results of the current study, the researcher recommends increasing extracurricular programs for bullying students, such as sports, drawing, and recreational activities, and providing advanced training modules for specialists. The study also recommends the importance of activating the role of the family and involving it in the development of treatment programs for bullying students. It is important to alleviate the feelings of turmoil and anxiety that bullying students with learning difficulties have and help students with learning difficulties to adapt and integrate into society. It is also recommended to increase the number of specialists to implement treatment programs in schools. and conducting further studies on bullying and its relationship to other variables from the perspective of social work and different samples such as secondary and university levels.
This study was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research (GBR) at Dar Al Hekma University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, under grant no. (RFC/21- 22/007). The authors extend their sincere gratitude and thanks to both King Khalid University and Dar Al Hekma University for their support. The authors of this study would like to thank MED-EL Medical Electronics, Innsbruck, Austria for their support.
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Citation: Al Sabi YN, "The Impact of Social Factors on Bullying among Students with Learning Disabilities". Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses 16S2 (2022) doi: 10.3371/CSRP.MMWY.100137
Copyright: � 2022 Al Sabi, YN. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution license which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.