Research Article - Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses ( 2022) Volume 16, Issue 4
Healthcare Workers Satisfaction in COVID-19 Health InstitutionsAlaa Noori Sarkees1* and Bangeen Sisn Ahmed2
2Department of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Technology, Duhok Polytechnic University, Duhok, Iraq
Alaa Noori Sarkees, Department of Nursing, College of Health and Medical Technology, Dohuk Polytechnic University, Duhok, Iraq, Email: email@example.com
Received: 31-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. CSRP-22-78741; Editor assigned: 04-Nov-2022, Pre QC No. CSRP-22-78741 (PQ); Reviewed: 18-Nov-2022, QC No. CSRP-22-78741; Revised: 28-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. CSRP-22-78741 (R); Published: 05-Dec-2022, DOI: 10.3371/CSRP.SABS.121122
Background: Healthcare workers experienced uncertainty when COVID-19 was established, particularly in their employment stability, financial state, and work and home environment. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic caught healthcare systems off guard, and healthcare professionals had to contend with a lack of required equipment such as face shields, masks, gowns, and respirators. Thus, the current study aimed to find out the healthcare workers satisfaction with their work conditions at the COVID-19 institutions in the Duhok Governorate.
Method: The study adopted a descriptive (cross-sectional) design at the five institutions of COVID-19 in the Duhok governorate established by the Duhok General Directory of Health in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq from October 31st, 2021, through October 22nd, 2022, on 238 healthcare workers who agreed to be subjects in the present study, the data were collected by using a Likert scale questionnaire with applying a direct interview technique to obtain healthcare workers-related information, descriptive statistics were done to calculate the HCW’s overall and subdomain satisfaction toward working in COVID-19 institutions by applying the by dividing the total questionnaire’s scores into three levels (cut-off point).
Results: The study reveals that nearly half (48.3%) of the healthcare workers in COVID-19 health institutions show average satisfaction regarding overall job satisfaction domain toward working in such institutions.
Conclusion: Nearly half of those workers showed average satisfaction regarding the overall domain of job satisfaction toward working in such institutions.
HCWs • Job Satisfaction • COVID-19 • Health Institution
Many cases with a similar presentation of pneumonia with an unknown origin were recorded in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. The results of the directed immense scientific efforts to determine the cause- related agent indicated novel single-stranded RNA virus was responsible for these clinical manifestations. This type of virus was known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), then later as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) . The World Health Organization (WHO) described COVID-19 in March 2020 as a global pandemic disease due to its rapid spread, and it resulted on April 19, 2021, in more than 141 million cases with three million deaths globally . As stated by Chirico et al., as a global public health issue, the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the majority of life domains and sectors, including the health sector . For example, this novel pandemic has affected most healthcare workers within the hospital and non-hospital settings in Italy and many other countries. Afulani et al. mentioned that during the COVID-19 epidemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) are confronting unprecedented professional obstacles . Several studies have documented the prevalence of depression, distress, and anxiety among frontline HCWs since the pandemic’s beginning. However, a few researchers have studied how job satisfaction has impacted over time. While the results of published studies presented that in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the HCWs are very dissatisfied with their job worldwide.
According to a study has been done by Khadka and Chaulagain, in the healthcare service delivery system, every healthcare professional worker is considered an essential member of such healthcare services . Due to the developed medical technology and the demand for more complex patient care, healthcare organizations need a competent and skilled workforce. That’s why Job satisfaction among healthcare workers is regarded as a measurement tool that should be included in program-related quality improvement. So, a lack of job satisfaction can increase staff turnover and absenteeism which leads to providing low-quality of healthcare services. Thus, in many nations, organizations pay significant attention to their employee’s subjective well-being and how it affects their jobs.
Researchers mentioned that Job satisfaction is a multifaceted function with numerous variables. For this reason, a person's satisfaction may be changed with one or more aspects of his or her job while dissatisfied with others . Job satisfaction is commonly discussed and examined as a significant part of organizational psychology and behaviour because it examines the physical and mental well-being of workers and workplaces from the viewpoint of psychological and human resources . Regarding patients and the health care system, its importance as a whole professional satisfaction in health care workers is closely related to the organization of work, human relationships, and absence from work. Thus, a great impact on the quality of health care is affected by the job satisfaction of healthcare workers on work efficiency, effectiveness, and at the same time healthcare costs . Yami et al. stated that numerous variables affect health services, including human resources, the delivery system, and health infrastructure . Furthermore, Human resources are a crucial component in the delivery of health care. For these reasons, the satisfaction of healthcare employees towards their job is very important to increase employee motivation and productivity. So, higher job satisfaction results in good employee performance and greater patient satisfaction. According to the critical role that healthcare professionals play in determining the efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of healthcare systems, it is crucial to understand what motivates them and to what extent they are satisfied by the organization and other contextual variables. Job satisfaction is also an essential part of ensuring the quality of care, as dissatisfied healthcare providers
Aim and objectives
This study aims to find out the healthcare workers satisfaction with the work conditions at the COVID-19 institutions in the Duhok Governorate.
The present study has adopted a descriptive design (cross-sectional) at the five institutions of COVID-19 in the Duhok governorate and established by the Duhok General Directory of Health in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Burn COVID-19 Hospital, Lalav Hospital, Azadi Hospital, Golan Hospital in Akre, and Zakho Emergency Hospital), which have been distributed in four districts (Duhok, Zakho, Akre, Semel) from October 31st, 2021 through October 22nd, 2022. The general population of COVID-19 hospitals was limited and changed periodically. That’s why the researcher included all healthcare workers in these hospitals as a general population for the current study. Thus, the total study population which has recruited depending on the study’s inclusion criteria reached (247) healthcare workers who agreed to be subjects in the present study after clarifying its aim and objective, while those who have less than one month of working in the COVID-19 institutions, and those did not present at the time of data collection have excluded from being subjects in the present study. The current study used a Likert scale questionnaire that is constructed throughout the review of relative kinds of literature and encompasses two parts. The first part deals with the socio-demographic information (Gender, age, hospital, level of education, category of employee, type of job, marital status, work experience, and economic-related information), and the other part concerns the healthcare workers job satisfaction, which includes 47 questions that are distributed in seven satisfactions subdomains (11 questions stand for the nature of work, seven an interpersonal relationship, four for payment and allowances, seven for the work environment, seven for training programs, six for grievance and redressal, and four for management and employees), these questions which are rated from highly dissatisfied to highly satisfied and scored from one to five respectively, and the data were collected by applying a direct interview technique to obtain healthcare workers-related information. The data was entered into IBM SPSS statistics software version 23 to apply the statistical analysis and the HCW’s overall and subdomain satisfaction toward working in COVID-19 institutions was done by applying the cut-off point by dividing the total questionnaire’s scores into three levels (Low satisfaction, Average satisfaction, and High satisfaction), and then the descriptive statistical methods were done as (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and confidence interval of the scores).
Results and Discussion
The study shows about one-half of the health care workers were male (51.7%), aged 20-29 years (51.3%), (51.3%) were residents of Duhok city, (53.4%) were married, (47.9%) had a bachelor's degree, and (59.7%) of them had moderate economic status (Table 1). Also, less than half of the participants work at Burn (COVID-19) Hospital (45.8%), while about half of them work as permanent employees (51.7%) and were nurses (51.3%), and nearly two-thirds of them had <1-9 year of work experience (65.5%) (Table 2). Besides, a large proportion of healthcare workers show average satisfaction in all subdomains of their job satisfaction in the COVID-19 health institutions (Table 3). Likewise, nearly half (48.3%) of the healthcare workers in COVID-19 health institutions show average satisfaction regarding the overall job satisfaction domain toward working in such institutions (Table 4).
|Demographic characteristics||Frequency (%)|
|50 and more||13 (5.5)|
|Education||High school nursing||27 (11.3)|
|Technical diploma||83 (34.9)|
|Bachelor degree||114 (47.9)|
|Higher education||14 (5.9)|
|Marital status||Single||111 (46.6)|
|Economic Status||Low 15-41||12 (5)|
|Moderate 42-68||142 (59.7)|
|High 69-96||84 (35.3)|
|Work-related variables||Frequency (%)|
|Place of work||Burn (COVID-19) Hospital||109 (45.8)|
|Lalav Hospital||79 (33.2)|
|Azadi Hospital||12 (5.0)|
|Akre (Golan Hospital)||20 (8.4)|
|Zakho (Emergency Hospital)||18 (7.6)|
|Employment status||Permanent employee||123 (51.7)|
|Contract employee||79 (33.2)|
|Radiologic technician||7 (2.9)|
|Laboratory technician||30 (12.6)|
|Anesthesia technician||23 (9.7)|
|Work Experience||< 1-9 Years||156 (65.6)|
|10-19 Years||56 (23.5)|
|20-29 Years||17 (7.1)|
|30-39 Years||9 (3.8)|
|Levels of job satisfaction||Freq (%)||Mean (SD)||95% CI|
|Nature of work satisfaction level||Low satisfaction||60 (25.2)||40.80 (8.080)||39.77-41.83|
|Average satisfaction||111 (46.6)|
|High satisfaction||67 (28.2)|
|Inter-Personal relationship satisfaction level||Low satisfaction||63 (26.5)||25.50 (5.934)||24.75-26.26|
|Average satisfaction||106 (44.5)|
|High satisfaction||69 (29)|
|Payment and Allowances satisfaction level||Low satisfaction||64 (26.9)||9.75 (4.095)||9.22-10.27|
|Average satisfaction||92 (38.7)|
|High satisfaction||82 (34.5)|
|Satisfaction toward the work environment||Low satisfaction||63 (26.5)||21.87 (5.912)||21.12-22.63|
|Average satisfaction||109 (45.8)|
|High satisfaction||66 (27.7)|
|Satisfaction toward training||Low satisfaction||66 (27.7)||17.02 (8.059)||15.99-18.05|
|Average satisfaction||112 (47.1)|
|High satisfaction||60 (25.2)|
|Satisfaction toward Grievance and Redressal||Low satisfaction||67 (28.2)||17.95 (6.298)||17.15-18.75|
|Average satisfaction||110 (46.2)|
|High satisfaction||61 (25.6)|
|Satisfaction toward Management and Employees||Low satisfaction||76 (31.9)||12.44 (3.781)||11.96-12.92|
|Average satisfaction||89 (37.4)|
|High satisfaction||73 (30.7)|
|Level||Freq (%)||Mean (SD)||95% CI|
|Overall job satisfaction level||Low satisfaction||62 (26.1)||145.34 (30.535)||141.44-149.24|
|Average satisfaction||115 (48.3)|
|High satisfaction||61 (25.6)|
Healthcare care workers related variables
According to the present study results, the majority of the 238 healthcare employees who work in COVID-19 institutions of different ages who participated in this study were between 20-29 years of age. Regarding education, they held a bachelor's degree. Moreover, and according to gender, males outnumbered girls, and lastly, the majority of responders were married.
Furthermore, the current results present that less than half of the participants worked at Burns Hospital (COVID-19 Hospital). While approximately half of them worked as permanent employees and were nurses, roughly two-thirds had less than one to nine years of work experience and had moderate economic status.
Similarly, Ibadi and Hamedon's research study about Job satisfaction and motivations of healthcare workers at selected hospitals in Al-Najaf Al- Ashraf City, Iraq, indicated that most participants were between the ages of 20-29 years of age . Also, the current study agreed with the study results conducted by Sabbar and Kassim on the relationship between workplacerelated violence and job satisfaction among nursing staff, showing that (67%) of them are young in the age group 20-29 years . Furthermore, a study has been done by Izci et al. in Erbil city on 250 participants, including doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers showed that approximately 44.4% of them had bachelor’s degrees and the majority of them were married . Moreover, other research papers published by Naeem and Jasim at Al-Muthanna governorate hospitals on self-efficacy for critical care nurses indicated that the majority of the nurses graduated with a bachelor’s degree and were married . Also, researchers worked on the mental health of staff who worked in intensive care during the COVID-19 study research. They selected 709 healthcare staff to participate in their study; the nurses made up (49%) of all healthcare staff who participated in this study .
In fact, at the time of the outbreak, the plan that the Government of Duhok governorate drew encompasses specifying the Burn hospital as the first to receive and admit patients with COVID-19. That’s why most of the staff recruited for working with this condition were permanent and young male employees with no more than nine years of work experience.
Healthcare care workers job satisfaction
The current research data analysis of 238 participants who responded to all the assessment tool questions regarding the job satisfaction of healthcare workers who worked in COVID-19 institutions in the Duhok governorate reveals that a large proportion of them exhibit average pride in all subdomains related to such satisfaction when working in these institutions. Furthermore, notwithstanding the evidence, nearly half of those workers showed average satisfaction regarding overall job satisfaction domain levels toward working in such institutions.
Research by Ibadi and Hamedon in Kufa, Al-Najaf-Iraq, indicated that more than half of the respondents were satisfied with their jobs, despite their knowledge about constraints that are affecting the health of workers . Also, other researchers in Erbil city in the Kurdistan region of Iraq studied the job satisfaction among nurses in Rzgary Teaching Hospital, presenting that the Nurses who work in this hospital were satisfied with their job . Moreover, only two areas of the Job Satisfaction Survey, "partners" and "nature of work," indicated that the nurses at the Athalassa hospital were satisfied with their jobs. However, many stated their dissatisfaction with the "promotion chances". They were neutral regarding the other six factors (salary, general advantages, moral rewards, operational procedures, supervision, and communication). In general, neither work satisfaction nor dissatisfaction was expressed by the hospital's nurses . Other study results showed only 4.1% of respondents were satisfied with their salary and benefits, while almost 92% of respondents stated that they were unsatisfied with this element .
Several researchers have shown in their study results that good relations among colleagues, along with the support of superiors and subordinates, generally create a feeling of satisfaction [18,19]. Also, research on social networks has been done by Bonache shows that social support through workers networks affects job satisfaction .
The present study concluded that healthcare employees who work in COVID-19 institutions were young adults, held a bachelor's degree, and were males; furthermore, approximately half of them worked as permanent employees and were nurses with less than one to nine years of work experience. Moreover, a large proportion of healthcare workers exhibit average satisfaction in all subdomains related to working in COVID-19 health institutions in the Duhok governorate; likewise, nearly half of those workers showed average satisfaction regarding the overall domain of job satisfaction toward working in such institutions. Therefore, the study recommends that healthcare institutions of COVID-19 consider increasing healthcare workers satisfaction by respecting the job satisfaction aspects included in the current research to enhance their productivity and performance, especially during a disease outbreak and disaster.
Limitations of the Study
The main obstacle that the researcher faced in the study processes was periodic changes in healthcare workers and their workplaces.
Before the study has undertaken the approval by the Scientific Committee of the College of Health and Medical Technology of Duhok Polytechnic University, Ministry of Health, research Ethics Committee in the General Directorate of health in the Duhok Governorate, Directorate of Health in Zakho District, and Directorate of health in Akre District, also oral informed consent from healthcare workers was obtained to be subject in the present study.
Special thanks to all the Health Care Workers who agreed to participate in this research study.
- Hamzeh, Mohammad Alrawashdeh, Ala’a B. Al-Tammemi, Mohammad Kh. Alzawahreh and Ashraf Al-Tamimi, et al. "Occupational Burnout and Job Satisfaction among Physicians in Times of Covid-19 Crisis: A Convergent Parallel Mixed-Method Study." BMC Public Health 21 (2021): 811.
[Google Scholar] [Pubmed]
- Catrin, Sohrabi, Zaid Alsafi, Niamh O'Neill and Mehdi Khan, et al. "World Health Organization Declares Global Emergency: A Review of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)." Int J Surg 76 (2020):71-76.
[Crossref] [Google Scholar] [Pubmed]
- Francesco, Chirico, Gabriella Nucera, Nicola Magnavita. "Hospital Infection and COVID-19: Do not put all your Eggs on the Swab Tests." Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 42 (2020): 372-373.
[Crossref] [Google Scholar] [Pubmed]
- Patience A, Afulani, Jerry John Nutor, Pascal Agbadi and Akua O Gyamerah et al. "Job Satisfaction among Healthcare Workers in Ghana and Kenya during the Covid-19 Pandemic: Role of Perceived Preparedness, Stress, and Burnout." PLOS Global Public Health 1 (2021): e0000022.
- Nawaraj, Chaulagain and Deepak Kumar Khadka. "Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction among Healthcare Professionals at Tilganga Eye Centre, Nepal." Int J Sci Technol Res 1 (2018): 32-36.
- Roopalekha, Jathanna, Melisha RD, Mary G and Latha KS. "Determinants of Job Satisfaction among Healthcare Workers at a Tertiary Care Hospital." Online J Health Allied Scs 10 (2011): 5.
- Alaa, Sarkees and Salim Saeed Azzez. "Nurses Job Satisfaction in Health Care Institutions in Duhok City." Erbil J Nurs Midwifery 2 (2019): 51-59.
- Dragana, Nikic, Mirjana Arandelovic, Maja Nikolici and Aleksandra Stankovic. "Job Satisfaction in Health Care Workers." Acta Medica Medianae 47 (2014): 9-12.
- Alemshet, Yami, Leja Hamza, Alima Hassen and Challi Jira et al. "Job Satisfaction and its Determinants among Health Workers in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia." Ethiop J Health Sci 21 (2011):19-27.
[Google Scholar] [Pubmed]
- Atheer, Kadhim Ibadi and Titi Rahmawati Hamedon. "Job Satisfaction and Motivations of Health Care Workers at Selected Hospitals in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf City, Iraq." Mal J Med Health Sci 16 (2020): 118-125.
- Duaa, Kadhim Sabbar and Wissam Jabbar Kassim. "Relationship between Workplace related Violence and Job Satisfaction among Nurses Staff." Pak J Med Health Sci 16 (2022): 1018-1020.
- Ferit, Izci, Nasreen Kakel Othman and Saman Sidqi Hamad AMEEN. "The Importance of Staff Motivation in Improving Performance and Job Satisfaction in the Public Health Sector." J Academic Proj 6 (2021): 1-18.
- Fouad, Salam Naeem and Aqeel Habeeb Jasim. "Self-efficacy for Critical Care Nurses in Al-Muthanna Governorate." Pak J Med Health Sci 16 (2022), 812-815.
- Neil, Greenberg, Weston Dale, Hall Charlotte and Caulfield Tristan et al. "Mental Health of Staff Working in Intensive Care during COVID-19." Occup Med 71 (2021): 62-67.
[Crossref] [Google Scholar] [Pubmed]
- Bakhtyar, Othman Omer, Muaf Abdulla Karim, Forough Rafii and Fereidoon Mahmoudi. "Job Satisfaction among Nurses in Rzgary Teaching Hospital in Erbil City." Kufa J Nurs Sci 6 (2016): 16-21.
- Alexandra, Skitsou, Michalis Anastasiou, George Charalambousa and Despena Andrioti. "Job Satisfaction of Nurses in a Psychiatric Hospital, in Cyprus." Int J Caring Sci 8 (2015): 683-697.
- Kebriaei A and Moteghedi MS. "Job Satisfaction among Community Health Workers in Zahedan District, Islamic Republic of Iran." East Mediterr Health J 15 (2009): 1156-1163.
- Bonnie, Sibbald, Ian Enzer, Cary Cooper and Usha Rout et al. "GP Job Satisfaction in 1987, 1990 and 1998: Lessons for the Future?" Fam Pract 17 (2000): 364-371.
[Crossref] [Google Scholar] [Pubmed]
- Nicholas, G Castle. "An Instrument to Measure Job Satisfaction of Nursing Home Administrators." BMC Med Res Methodol 6 (2006):1-11.
[Crossref] [Google Scholar] [Pubmed]
- Jaime, Bonache. "Job Satisfaction among Expatriates, Repatriates, and Domestic Employees: The Perceived Impact of International Assignments on Work‐Related Variables." Personnel Review 34 (2005):110-124.
Citation: Sarkees, Alaa Noori and Bangeen Sisn Ahmed “Healthcare Workers Satisfaction in COVID-19 Health Institutions.” Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses 16 (2022). Doi: 10.3371/CSRP.SABS.121122
Copyright: © 2022 Sarkees AN, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.