Brief Report - Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses ( 2021) Volume 0, Issue 0
Estimation of the Oxidative Stress State in Depression Disorders PatientsMohammed Abed Jawad1*, Mona N Al-Terehi2, Hajer Ali Enad3, Thanaa J Kareem2 and Alaa Ibraheem Lazim4
2Department of Science, Babylon University, Babylon, Iraq
3Department of Medical Laboratory, AL-Mustaqbal University College, Hillah, Iraq
4Department of Medical Sciences, Al-Manara College, Baghdad, Iraq
Mohammed Abed Jawad, Department of Science, Al-Nisour University, Baghdad, Iraq, Email: [email protected]
Received: 29-Sep-2021 Accepted Date: Oct 13, 2021 ; Published: 20-Oct-2021
Depression disorders become the most health problems in the world, the present study was conducted to evaluate the oxidative stress associated with depression disorder patients, ROS and TAO were detected in study groups, The findings show that there was non-significant differences between patients and control group in age (P=0.081) and significant differences in BMI (P=0.000). also Significant elevation in ROS in patients than control at (P=0.000) and significant decreasing in TAO in patients than control group, Regarding to duration categories, there was non-significant differences in ROS (P=0.939) and TOA (P=0.879), belong to BMI the study parameters showed non-significant differences in TOA (P=0.939) And ROS (P=0.879), The correlation coefficient show strong invers association between ROS and TOA in patients (r = -0.900, p=0.000) and control (r= -0.627, P=0.000). It can be concluded strong associated between oxidative stress (ROS and TAO) and depression disease.
Oxidative stress • ROS• TAO• Depression disorders patients
The oxidative stress define as an increasing in free radical production with antioxidant molecules declined in the body, the free radicals have pivotal role in some cellular processing like inflammation, cellular trigger and energy production [1,2].
The free radicals included different types like ROS and RNS, both types have free electron in outer membrane able to interact with different cellular components causes harmful changes like lipids peroxidation, protein alteration and DNA damage [3,4].
Depression is one of the mental disorders that increased in a large percentage in the world in last decades; the WHO classified the depression at the 4th leading cause of disability worldwide .
Investigators show that the Oxidative stress associated with some disease etiology and pathogenesis [6,7]. Many psychiatric disorders have been found to be associated with ROS also the long period of oxidative stress led to other disease like diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cancer by accumulation mutations in DNA the present study aims to evaluation the oxidative stress state by detection ROS and TAO in depression disorder patients [8-10].
Study sitting and subjects
A casecontrol study was conducted to estimate the oxidative stress state in the depression disorder patients, 20 patients were contributed in present investigation with 30 healthy individuals, patients were diagnosis as a depression disorders by specialist physician prof. Dr. Arafat H. Al-Dujaily in al-Saader teaching hospital.
Data and sample collection
All data and samples were collected according to ethical approval of ministry of environment and health in Iraq, blood samples were collected to sera isolated for TAO and ROS detection, TAO estimation by ELIZA technique and ROS detected by colorimetric method.
Data was represented as mean ± SE and significant was estimated at p<0.05 by independent T test and ANOVA one way, in addition to correlation coefficient.
Results and Discussion
The findings show that there was non-significant differences between patients and control group in age (P=0.081) and significant differences in BMI (P=0.000) also Significant elevation in ROS (108.45 ± 11.98) in patients than control (25.87 ± 1.38) at (p=0.000) and significant decreasing in TAO in patients (10.78 ± 0.50) than control group (18.00 ± 0.79) (Table 1).
|Age||39.50 ± 3.10||33.10 ± 2.07||0.081|
|BMI||25.01 ± 0.86||28.06 ± 0.988||0.000|
|Duration||7.15 ± 1.71||0|
|TAO||10.78 ± 0.50||18.00 ± 0.79||0.000|
|ROS||108.45 ± 11.98||25.87 ± 1.38||0.000|
Regarding to duration categories, three categories were depended (<5, 5-10 and >10), according to duration period there was non-significant differences in ROS (P=0.939) and TOA (P=0.879), while significant differences observed in AGE and BMI (P=0.000) (Table 2).
|1st||10.8653 ± 0.79177||109.0070 ± 18.31180||22.3500 ± 0.86439||22.3500 ± 0.86439|
|2ed||10.8181 ± 0.79684||112.4113 ± 19.52397||26.3750 ± 0.33368||26.3750 ± 0.33368|
|3ed||10.2215 ± 1.37350||89.8300 ± 33.60000||32.9000 ± 0.10000||32.9000 ± 0.10000|
The BMI was classified to 3 categories (normal, over and obese) Wight, study parameters showed non-significant differences in TOA (P=0.939) And ROS (P=0.879) and significant in age (P=0.000) (Table 3).
10.86 ± 0.79
109.00 ± 18.31
22.35 ± 0.864
10.81 ± 0.796
112.41 ± 19.52
26.37 ± 0.33
32.90 ± 0.100
The correlation coefficient was studied, strong invers association between ROS and TOA in patients (r= -0.900, p=0.000) and control (r= -0.627, p=0.000) (Figure 1).
The present research was implemented to estimate the oxidative stress in the subjects suffered from depression, the age, BMI and duration categories were dependent in present analysis, the elevation of ROS level in present study was deal with other studies proved the main role of oxidative stress alteration in depression and other psychiatric disorders [11,12].
Regarding to the high consumption of oxygen and brain lipid-rich constitution [13,14], the oxidative stress may be the main factors of several psychiatric disorders by lipid peroxidation and protein destruction [15,16]. The lower concentration of TAO in depression that observed in present study also found in other investigations that fond low level of tryptophan, vitamin E, tyrosine, zinc, glutathione, albumin and CoQ10, in addition to decline in antioxidant enzyme activities the impaired in antioxidant mechanisms activities decreased the cell components against oxidation effect in the proteins, lipids and DNA lead to elevation in malondialdehyde, proteins functions alteration and DNA mutation [17-20]. On the other hand, other researchers found that the prolonged psychological stress may leads to increase in oxidative stress and depressive symptoms .
Belong to duration the TAO didn’t effect by duration while ROS decreased with duration this may be by used anti-depression drugs, or special dietary system, or exercise that contributed in the decreased ROS. He relation ROS in present study lowering in the obese subjects, other study found strong positive relation between them and this didn’t deal with present finding , different factors contributed in the ROS and obesity in complex associations . The correlation between ROS and TAO appeared in strong positive relation in patients and this deal with previous studies that proved increasing ROS and decreased in TAO levels in depression patients . The ROS and TAO variations in BMI and duration were non-significant because some limitations of present study as well as the low sample number because of poor health awareness in Iraqi population about psychiatric disorders which prevent the peoples to attend to the psychiatric clinic and used healthy life style. The present study concluded that ROS increased with decreased in TAO in Iraqi depression disorder patients without affected by BMI and duration of disease.
The correlation between ROS and TAO appeared in strong positive relation in patients and this deal with previous studies that proved increasing ROS and decreased in TAO levels in depression patients. The ROS and TAO variations in BMI and duration were non-significant because some limitations of present study as well as the low sample number because of poor health awareness in Iraqi population about psychiatric disorders which prevent the peoples to attend to the psychiatric clinic and used healthy life style. The present study concluded that ROS increased with decreased in TAO in Iraqi depression disorder patients without affected by BMI and duration of disease.
- Lobo, Vijaya, Avinash Patil, A Phatak and Naresh Chandra. “Free Radicals, Antioxidants and Functional Foods: Impact on Human Health.” Pharmacogn Rev 4 (2010): 118.
- Gabriele Pizzino, Natasha Irrera, Mariapaola Cucinotta and Giovanni Pallio, et al. “Oxidative Stress: Harms and Benefits for Human Health”. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017 (2017): 13.
- Hattori, Yukari, Chikako Nishigori, Tomoyuki Tanaka and Koji Uchida, et al. “8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine is Increased in Epidermal cells of Hairless Mice after Chronic Ultraviolet B Exposure.” J Invest Dermatol 107 (1996): 733-737.
- Young, IS and JV Woodside. “Antioxidants in Health and Disease.” J Clin Pathol 54 (2001): 176-186.
- Murray, Christopher JL and Alan D Lopez. “Evidence-Based Health Policy—Lessons from the Global Burden of Disease Study.” Science 274 (1996): 740-743.
- Kovacic, Peter and Ratnasamy Somanathan. “Redox Processes in Neurodegenerative Disease Involving Reactive Oxygen Species.” Curr Neuropharmacol 10 (2012): 289-302.
- Wahlqvist, Mark L. “Antioxidant Relevance to Human Health.” Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 22 (2013): 171-176.
- Bouayed, Jaouad, Hassan Rammal and Rachid Soulimani. “Oxidative Stress and Anxiety: Relationship and Cellular Pathways.” Oxid Med Cell Longev 2 (2009): 63-67.
- Hovatta, Iiris, Juuso Juhila and Jonas Donner. “Oxidative Stress in Anxiety and Comorbid Disorders.”Neurosci Res 68 (2010): 261-275.
- Alriyahee, Fulla Abd Alsattar, Noora M Hameed, Israa Harjan Mohsen and Mona N Al-Terehi. “Potential Impact of Micro RNA-146a Gene Polymorphisms in Oxidative Stress of Diabetic Mellitus Type.” Sys Rev Pharmacy 11 (2020): 260-263.
- Bajpai, Ashutosh, Akhilesh Kumar Verma, Mona Srivastava and Ragini Srivastava. “Oxidative Stress and Major Depression.” J Clin Diagn Res 8 (2014): 1-4.
- Grases, G, MA Colom, RA Fernandez and A Costa-Bauzá, et al. “Evidence of Higher Oxidative Status in Depression and Anxiety.” Oxid Med Cell Longev 2014 (2014): 1-5.
- Bouayed, Jaouad, Hassan Rammal, and Rachid Soulimani. “Oxidative Stress and Anxiety: Relationship and Cellular Pathways.” Oxid Med Cell Longev 2 (2009): 63-67.
- Hovatta, Iiris, Juuso Juhila and Jonas Donner. “Oxidative Stress in Anxiety and Comorbid Disorders.” Neurosci Res 68 (2010): 261-275.
- Halliwell, Barry. “Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration: Where Are we Now?” J Neurochem 97 (2006): 1634-1658.
- Berk, Michael, Felicity Ng, Olivia Dean and Seetal Dodd, et al. “Glutathione: A Novel Treatment Target in Psychiatry.” Trends Pharmacol Sci 29 (2008): 346-351.
- Maes, Michael, Piotr Galecki, Yong Seun Chang and Michael Berk. “A Review on the Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress (O&NS) Pathways in Major Depression and their Possible Contribution to the (neuro) Degenerative Processes in that Illness.” Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 35 (2011): 676-692.
- Scapagnini, Giovanni, Sergio Davinelli, Filippo Drago and Antonino De Lorenzo, et al. “Antioxidants as Antidepressants.” CNS Drugs 26 (2012): 477-490.
- Erel, Ozcan. “A Novel Automated Direct Measurement Method for Total Antioxidant Capacity Using a New Generation, more Stable ABTS Radical Cation." Clin Biochem 37 (2004): 277-285.
- Wu, Lily L, Chiuan-Chian Chiou, Pi-Yueh Chang and James T Wu. “Urinary 8-OHdG: A Marker of Oxidative Stress to DNA and a Risk Factor for Cancer, Atherosclerosis and Diabetics.” Clinica chimica acta 339 (2004): 1-9.
- Valavanidis, Athanasios, Thomais Vlachogianni, and Constantinos Fiotakis. "8-HSSydroxy-2′-Deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG): A Critical Biomarker of Oxidative Stress and Carcinogenesis.” J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 27 (2009): 120-139.
- Vincent, Heather K, and Ann G Taylor. “Biomarkers and Potential Mechanisms of Obesity-Induced Oxidant Stress in Humans.” Int J Obes (Lond) 30 (2006): 400-418.
- Manna, Prasenjit and Sushil K Jain. “Obesity, Oxidative Stress, Adipose Tissue Dysfunction, and the Associated Health Risks: Causes and Therapeutic Strategies.” Metab Syndr Relat Disord 13 (2015): 423-444.
Citation: Abed Jawad, Mohammed, Mona N Al-Terehi, Hajer Ali Enad and Thanaa J Kareem, et al. “Estimation the Oxidative Stress State in Depression Disorders Patients.” Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses 15S (2021). Doi: 10.3371/CSRP.JMMT.102021
Copyright: © 2021 Jawad MA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.