ISSN: 1935-1232 (P)

ISSN: 1941-2010 (E)


Case Report - Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses ( 2023) Volume 0, Issue 0

Description of Psychological Needs in Children with Learning Disability
Mohammad Nayef Ayasrah1* and Mohamad Ahmad Saleem Khasawneh2
1Associate Professor of Special Education, Al Balqa Applied University/, Department Science of Education,Irbid University, College. Postal code 1293, Irbid, Jordan
2Assistant Professor, Special Education Department, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author:
Mohammad Nayef Ayasrah, Associate Professor of Special Education, Al Balqa Applied University/, Department Science of Education,Irbid University, College. Postal code 1293, Irbid, Jordan, Email:

Received: 23-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. CSRP-23-87688; Accepted Date: Feb 07, 2023 ; Editor assigned: 24-Jan-2023, Pre QC No. CSRP- 23-87688 (PQ); Reviewed: 02-Feb-2023, QC No. CSRP-23-87688(Q); Revised: 06-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. CSRP-23-87688 (R); Published: 08-Feb-2023, DOI: 10.3371/CSRP. MMWY.100149


When a youngster lacks the drive to study, it might have a negative impact on their academic achievement. It's possible that the problem stems from unsatisfied psychological requirements. It is possible that a child's capacity to learn at school, as well as their growth and ability to change, may be negatively impacted when their needs are not addressed. The goal of the study is to get a more in-depth knowledge of the mental health of children who struggle academically via the use of the research. In order to look into this further, we use a method called a qualitative case study. A method called systematic sampling is used in the gathering of the data. Children of elementary school age who are still having difficulty with reading, writing, and arithmetic despite attending traditional educational institutions are the subjects of this study. The data was collected by secretly observing the subject and interviewing the subject's parents and teachers using a combination of open-ended and semi-structured questions. There were discovered to be three characteristics of children who had difficulties learning, including a short memory, weak learning motivation, and the personality of children who are quiet and seldom spoke. These patterns were then grouped into a total of fourteen different groups. The remaining 11 groups are geared on catering to the emotional requirements of youngsters who struggle intellectually.


Psychological Needs • Learning Disability • Academic Achievement


Each kid is a one-of-a-kind individual with their own own personalities, quirks, and qualities. As a result of this natural variety, the mental capacities of all infants, even sets of identical twins, are distinct. Every youngster has their own special identity. It is not always the case that the individual traits of children are proportionate to one another. Every youngster is born with the intrinsic capacity to learn new things and grow in their own special manner. Some children are born inherently intelligent and responsive to learning, while others can need more time to fully comprehend new information [1]. It is for this reason that it is not a good idea to treat all children in the same manner. Children who are inclined to succeed in one area but suffer in another, as well as those who have other issues in their development, are both included in the group of children who are considered to have special needs. This category is a wide one.

The children who have special requirements are the ones who stick out from the rest of the group for one reason or another, and this distinction has nothing to do with the children's mental or emotional well-being or their physical capabilities. The phrase "children with special needs" is often used to refer to these young people. Children who are classified as "children with special needs" have unique educational requirements that distinguish them apart from children who are considered to be "normal," and they need personalized help to meet those requirements. Children with autism, down syndrome, and learning difficulties are examples of disorders that fall under the category of children with special needs [2]. Children who have true difficulties with abilities such as listening, talking, reading, writing, thinking, and arithmetic are the ones we refer to as having "learning challenges." When we speak about "children with learning issues," we mean children who have these difficulties [3]. It's possible that a child's capacity to learn across a variety of subject areas would suffer as a result of these obstacles.

Learning difficulties are unfortunately all too frequent among young people, especially in the setting of schools and education [4]. When someone has problems learning new things, the common assumption is that they are not intelligent enough. Children that have trouble learning should not be sent to ordinary schools because if they do so, they will continue to fail academically even after attending such institutions. Children who have difficulties in learning often have a more difficult time than their peers in acquiring new ideas and concepts. If a child who is having difficulty intellectually is enrolled in a traditional school, it is inevitable that they will lag behind the other children in their class [5]. Every kid has a unique mental capacity for learning, and these capacities might range widely. The fact that no two children, not even two sets of identical twins, are precisely the same is one of the factors that contributes to the fact that their IQs are not the same.

Learning challenges in children are a topic that is not only intriguing but also very important [6]. There isn't a single factor that can be singled out as the cause of a child's difficulty in acquiring new knowledge; rather, the causes originate from a broad variety of different places. These phenomena may be caused by a combination of internal and external factors, such as the management of learning activities that do not spark children's learning drive and the delivery of erroneous repetition. In addition to these possible external reasons, brain dysfunction and incorrect learning processes are also possibilities.

It's also possible that the individual's psychological requirements aren't being satisfied to the level that they should be. This is something that you should look into. Primary requirements, which are often referred to as physiological needs, include things like the necessity for food and water, while secondary wants, which are also referred to as psychological needs, include things like the requirement for a sense of protection and security. The two categories of fundamental criteria are not interchangeable with one another. If a person does certain acts or displays particular behaviors, they may be able to satiate both their primary or physiological wants as well as their secondary or psychological needs. When a kid's emotional and behavioral needs are met, the child experiences emotional growth and development on both an emotional and behavioral level. This, in turn, has an effect on the child's cognitive and social skills. These conditions have to be satisfied since they play a significant role in building a solid foundation, which is necessary for the development and growth of new characteristics.

If the child's requirements are satisfied, he or she will experience fulfillment and joy, which is a state that may be encouraged and supported. The converse is true if the youngster is unable to conquer this impediment; in that instance, he or she may suffer intense disappointment or fury as a result. Feelings of aggravation are sometimes brought on by a combination of things, including one's own actions, the actions of others, outside influences, and even one's own mental condition [7]. During the formative years of a kid, negative experiences such as disappointments or frustrations may make it more difficult for the youngster to adapt to new environments in the future. It is possible for a kid to experience learning challenges, which are one kind of adjustment disorder. Adjustment disorders may affect children [8].

In light of the information presented above, the researcher aims to focus the bulk of this investigation on the problem of identifying the psychological needs of children who have difficulties with learning as the primary focus of this investigation. There is a significant amount of space here for study and discussion. It is possible to deduce, based on the circumstances that lead to the emergence of learning difficulties, what psychological and physiological needs children who have these difficulties have. We choose to focus on this topic so that in the future we would have a better understanding of the types of assistance that parents and teachers of children who have difficulties learning need in order to give those children with the most favorable conditions for education and growth.


For the purpose of this specific inquiry, the research technique consisted of a qualitative research strategy paired with a case study style. In order to conduct this inquiry, the researchers used a technique known as purposive sampling. The two basic methods that are used in the process of data collection are observation and conducting interviews with individuals. During the period that he was receiving instruction in calistung at school, he came up with a number of insights relevant to the subject matter. The participant's school was chosen as the setting for the nonparticipatory observation methods that were carried out at various points throughout this research project. A distinct method of data collection, known as semi-structured interviews, was used while conducting interviews with the subject's parents and teachers at the subject's school. The process of organizing data, dividing it up into smaller parts, synthesizing it, arranging it in patterns, selecting which aspects of the data are most important and what will be learned, and drawing conclusions that can be communicated to other people are what are involved in the process of data analysis.

Results and Discussion

After doing an analysis on the data they gathered over the course of their investigation, the researchers came to the conclusion that the psychological requirements of children who have difficulty learning may be broken down into 14 distinct categories.

It is possible, in light of the first pattern, to understand the features of children who have difficulty learning, as described by teachers and parents in interviews. The researcher was able to get insight into a number of qualities thanks to the inquiry. According to the response that was provided by the instructor, the student has a poor recall, which is why the student is having difficulty comprehending the material that is being presented in class. Because of problems with his memory, the subject has difficulty reading sentences that have more than four words and words that have more than six letters in total. In this session, we will practice writing out addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division as a single, continuous process. This will help us become more efficient with our writing. As a direct consequence of this, the individual in question considers counting to be less difficult.

Another one of the subject's traits is that it does not engage in conversation with anybody who approaches it with the intention of having a conversation with it. For instance, when parents ask their children what they do during school hours, the responses that they get from their children are often brief and delivered in a manner that conveys a lack of interest. When his parents try to advise or punish him about the issue, he often doesn't speak up or breaks down in tears instead. The views expressed by the instructors at that institution indicate that this is pretty comparable. The pupil maintains complete silence during the whole of the in-class teaching, regardless of the degree to which he or she comprehends the subject matter that is being taught [9]. The same thing occurred when the subject and his friends had a disagreement; he was unable to explain what had happened and instead broke down in tears. The same thing happened when the subject and his friends had a misunderstanding.

The subject does not have the same level of education as his contemporaries. The participant makes the decision to sit next to a wellmannered and bright youngster on a park seat in the hopes of picking up some useful information from the child. The person is held in very high esteem by those who are considered to be his or her closest friends. The vast majority of his spare time is spent in the company of his friends, catching some breeze while kite-flying

The authors of the study decided to conduct interviews with the subjects' parents and teachers in order to achieve their goal of reducing the number of misunderstandings that were brought about as a result of the inability of the participants to correctly interpret the questions that were posed by the researchers. Interview requests were only sent to really noteworthy persons. Following a series of interviews with both educators and parents, the researchers were able to identify 12 distinct kinds of psychological requirements, which are shown in pattern 2.

The "Urge of Abasement" is the first psychological urge, and it refers to the desire to submit to and follow authority figures no matter how challenging the circumstances may be. There is proof of this in the story that is told about how the subject's father told him to cease playing with his female friends after the father had previously encouraged the subject to stop doing so [10]. If the subject's father shouts at him to stop jumping on the bed, for example, and the subject quickly stops making noise and stops what he's doing, then we may get to the conclusion that the subject is particularly receptive to authority figures.

Subject is known to get irate in response to his mother's admonition, at which point he will often slam the door in a boisterous and persistent way. During confrontations with his friends, it was common knowledge that he would break bricks and kick buckets. This is proof that the person wants to be aggressive, and more specifically that they want to behave aggressively when they are furious [11]. Additionally, this is evidence that the individual wants to act aggressively when they are angry. In spite of the subject's antagonistic conduct toward his mother, there is evidence that the subject is searching for consolation in the form of the subject exhibiting love for his parents [12]. The main character does not have any ill will against his own parents. In addition to this, he shows his affection for his younger sister by including him in the activities they play. Holding his younger brother close to him while at the same time extending an invitation for him to ride piggyback.

A person satisfies a second psychological need, referred to as the Need of Affiliation, when they have positive relationships with their peers and are able to communicate with individuals their own age. The person who is speaking is skilled at putting together stylish outfits and enjoys decorating his or her look with hats and spectacles so as to give the impression of being cool. Taking selfies in the cool Need of Exhibition style is one of his favorite things to do in his spare time. Playing video games on the Need of Play smartphone, which was formerly owned by the protagonist's father, takes up a significant portion of the protagonist's time [13]. The participant has the intention of downloading a variety of games that he enjoys from the internet [14]. The subject, on the other hand, often deletes the games that he has downloaded because he does not want his younger brother to use their father's mobile phone to play the games that the older brother has downloaded for him on the older brother's mobile phone. This action is illustrative of his desire to assume leadership responsibilities.

The subject may sometimes demonstrate his desire for order by cleaning, mopping, and wiping the windows on his own will. This may be done on occasion. The subject, on the other hand, will refuse to clean the floor or the furniture if the mother requests them to do so. The topic serves as an illustration of the many valid reasons for disobeying a Need of Rejection order [15]. When the subject does something wrong, he wants to avoid getting in trouble with his parents so that he doesn't have to listen to his parents' criticism [16]. After he had broken a water line belonging to a neighbor, the subject's mother punished him, which prompted him to exhibit a yearning for independence. He said that he was tired of getting into problems with his parents and that as a consequence, he wanted to leave the house.

The information gained through conversations with the subject's family, instructors, and administration, in addition to observations conducted in the classroom, served as the basis for the first and second patterns. The researchers were able to establish 11 unique kinds of requirements after going over all of these interviews. Because some psychological requirements have not been satisfied, it is plausible to draw the conclusion that these requirements have not been satisfied [17]. This may be evident in the day-to-day behaviors of the subject, as recounted by the subject's parents and instructors.

The psychological and behavioral reaction of the individual is a direct result of the treatment that their family have given them in the past [18]. According to Hurlock, a child's openness to new experiences may be influenced by the relationships they have with their family members. Due to the fact that many connections continue to exist after they have been created, parental perspectives have a significant impact on the development of family ties. The patient's psychological demands, such as the desire to feel successful, are not being met by this therapy in any way [19]. For example, the person doesn't have a sense of accomplishment or satisfaction in their life. The subject's parents and the principal were of the opinion that their child did not have the desire to better oneself since they did not see any signs of the sort of excitement that is necessary to achieve progress. They thought that their child lacked the drive to develop oneself.

In addition, the findings of the investigation lend credence to this hypothesis. It is possible that providing children with immediate reinforcement, such as prizes and words of praise such as "good, good, good work," can increase the children's desire to study and contribute to their overall growth. It is essential for adults to provide this reinforcement as quickly as possible once the child accomplishes what the adult wants them to or comes near to demonstrating the behavior that is wanted [20]. If a child's psychological requirements aren't met, it might stunt their emotional and social development, which could then have a negative impact on their academic achievement. The individual who is affected by this ailment has difficulty reading, writing, and doing simple mathematical calculations. The value of the subject in the classroom is drastically reduced as a direct result of his much lower ability as compared to that of his peers.


According to the findings of the discussion that have been detailed up until this point, it is possible to draw the following conclusions about the types of children that have difficulty learning: these children have poor memory qualities, don't communicate much and have a tendency to be quiet, and have a low level of motivation to learn. These conclusions can be drawn about the types of children that have difficulty learning because: Children who have not had their psychological needs met are at a greater risk of having roadblocks in their development, including in the area of cognitive development, which is one of the ways in which these roadblocks can manifest themselves. This risk increases with the longer these children go without having their psychological needs met. The researchers are well aware that there are a lot of limitations and drawbacks to this study, the most notable of which being the fact that the subject being studied was not seen first-hand. This is due to the fact that researchers are restricted in their ability to perform observations at schools as a result of the COVID-19 epidemic, which has led to a reduction in the number of educational activities that take place in schools. As a result of this, there are fewer opportunities for researchers to gather data at schools. In addition, researchers are unable to conduct observations of the subject while they are accompanying the subject to study or when the subject is socializing with their family when they are at home since these situations prevent researchers from making observations of the subject. This came about as a result of a request to conduct out autonomous isolation in the surrounding area that was issued by both the government and the traditional leader of the village. As a direct consequence of this, the researchers were only permitted to do one observation at the school before an appeal was made for them to conduct the research on their own at home.


Citation: Mohammad Nayef Ayasrah, Mohamad Ahmad Saleem Khasawneh, "Description of Psychological Needs in Children with Learning Disability". Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses 17S2 (2023) doi: 10.37421/CSRP.2023.17.149

Copyright: � 2023 Ayasrah, MN, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.