People Living with HIV and Neurocysticercosis Presenting Covid-19: A Systematic Review and Crosstalk ProposalsAuthor(s): Humberto Foyaca Sibat*
Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is associated with the risk of death due to Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) which is undefined. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this comorbidity in a large-scale population-based study to identify the relationship with the risk of mortality among People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) presenting COVID-19 and Neurocysticercosis (NCC), which is largely unknown. Based on the previous background information, we identify three research questions: 1. How often the comorbidity of HIV/NCC/COVID has been reported in the medical literature? 2. What is the most typical clinical presentation of this comorbidity? 3. What is the most probable pathogenesis of this comorbidity and its consequences?
Method: A systematic review of COVID-19/HIV/AIDS/NCC publications written in English, Spanish, and Portuguese was performed to answer the first research questions. We included case reports, case series, observational cohort studies, systematic review and meta-analysis, cross-sectional studies, and clinical trials on the comorbidity of NCC/HIV/AIDS/COVID-19. During the initial search, we looked for all articles published between December 1, 2019 and October 31, 2021.
Results: From searched retrospective cohort studies, case reports, case series and case-control studies, we found a total of 905, 620 PLWHA infected by SARSCoV-2 cases with reported clinical presentations. The commonest clinical manifestations of HIV patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 were fever (n:690-994, 76.3%). tiredness (n:595-903, 65.8%), dry cough (n:537-037, 59.3%), headache (n418-021, 46.15%), ashes/pain (n:153-145, 16.8%), diarrhea (n:129-504, 14.3 %), sore throat (n:85-129, 14.3%).
Comments: No case report/case series on PLWHAN and associated COVID-19 has been reported, and no other analysis of this comorbidity has been published. We have hypothesized a novel mechanism for this comorbidity based on novel combinations of pro and anti-inflammatory elements aggravated by an increased capacity of viral replication and transmission, sustainable stress due to prolonged pandemic leading to a decreased immunological response.
Conclusion: We recommend a mandatory plan to vaccinate all PLWHA as a matter of maxima priority and do not prescribe anti-parasitic medication for cysticercosis for PLWHA on the risk of being infected SARS-CoV-2.
Abbreviations:AC-1: Activate Caspase-1; BD: Brainstem Dysfunction; BVEMF: Binding and Viral Entry (Membrane Fusion); C: Cytoplasm; CAM: Cell Adhesion Molecules; CCC2-3: Chemokine C-C Motif Ligands 2 and 3; CRS: Cytokine Release Syndrome; Dy: Dysbiosis; E: Epilepsy; ES: Epileptic Seizure; SE: Status Epilepticus; DNAv: Deoxyribonucleic Acid Viral; IFN-γ: Interferon Gamma; IL: Interleukin, G-CSF: Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; LC: Long COVID-19; RT: Reverse Transcriptase; HPAaa: Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activation; RNAp: Ribonucleic Acid Polymerase; RNAg: Ribonucleic Acid Genome; R: Ribosome, MSOF: Multi-System Organ Failure; NA: Neuro-AIDS; NC: Neuro-COVID-19; ND: Neurotransmitters Disorder; NVC: New Virus Copy; ORFx: Open Reading Frames (a,b,3,6,7a,7b,8,10); PIE: Pro-Inflammatory Enzymes; PE: Prostaglandin-Ethanolamides; RNAr: Ribonucleic Acid Replication; CA: Cell Apoptosis; IE: Inflammatory Environment; HEIF16: High Expression of IF16; VI: Viral Integrase; TNFα: Tumour Necrosing Alpha; IL1β: Interleukin 1-beta; TSC: Taenia Solium Cysticercosis; A/M A: Astrocytes/Microglia Activation; B: Bacteroidetes; DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid Viral; F: Firmicutes; HEIF16: High Expression of IF16; IFN-γ: Interferon-Gamma; TYMP: Thymidine Phosphorylase; VEGF-A: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A.